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Given [link] about how much force does the rocket engine exert on the 3.0-kg payload?
Distance traveled with rocket engine firing (m) | Payload final velocity (m/s) |
---|---|
500 | 310 |
490 | 300 |
1020 | 450 |
505 | 312 |
(b)
You have a cart track, a cart, several masses, and a position-sensing pulley. Design an experiment to examine how the force exerted on the cart does work as it moves through a distance.
Look at [link] (c). You compress a spring by x , and then release it. Next you compress the spring by 2 x . How much more work did you do the second time than the first?
(d)
You have a cart track, two carts, several masses, a position-sensing pulley, and a piece of carpet (a rough surface) that will fit over the track. Design an experiment to examine how the force exerted on the cart does work as the cart moves through a distance.
A crane is lifting construction materials from the ground to an elevation of 60 m. Over the first 10 m, the motor linearly increases the force it exerts from 0 to 10 kN. It exerts that constant force for the next 40 m, and then winds down to 0 N again over the last 10 m, as shown in the figure. What is the total work done on the construction materials?
(a)
Give an example of something we think of as work in everyday circumstances that is not work in the scientific sense. Is energy transferred or changed in form in your example? If so, explain how this is accomplished without doing work.
Give an example of a situation in which there is a force and a displacement, but the force does no work. Explain why it does no work.
Describe a situation in which a force is exerted for a long time but does no work. Explain.
How much work does a supermarket checkout attendant do on a can of soup he pushes 0.600 m horizontally with a force of 5.00 N? Express your answer in joules and kilocalories.
A 75.0-kg person climbs stairs, gaining 2.50 meters in height. Find the work done to accomplish this task.
(a) Calculate the work done on a 1500-kg elevator car by its cable to lift it 40.0 m at constant speed, assuming friction averages 100 N. (b) What is the work done on the lift by the gravitational force in this process? (c) What is the total work done on the lift?
(a) $5\text{.}\text{92}\times {\text{10}}^{5}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{J}$
(b) $-5\text{.}\text{88}\times {\text{10}}^{5}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{J}$
(c) The net force is zero.
Suppose a car travels 108 km at a speed of 30.0 m/s, and uses 2.0 gal of gasoline. Only 30% of the gasoline goes into useful work by the force that keeps the car moving at constant speed despite friction. (See [link] for the energy content of gasoline.) (a) What is the magnitude of the force exerted to keep the car moving at constant speed? (b) If the required force is directly proportional to speed, how many gallons will be used to drive 108 km at a speed of 28.0 m/s?
Calculate the work done by an 85.0-kg man who pushes a crate 4.00 m up along a ramp that makes an angle of $\text{20}\text{.}0\text{\xba}$ with the horizontal. (See [link] .) He exerts a force of 500 N on the crate parallel to the ramp and moves at a constant speed. Be certain to include the work he does on the crate and on his body to get up the ramp.
How much work is done by the boy pulling his sister 30.0 m in a wagon as shown in [link] ? Assume no friction acts on the wagon.
A shopper pushes a grocery cart 20.0 m at constant speed on level ground, against a 35.0 N frictional force. He pushes in a direction $\text{25}\text{.}0\text{\xba}$ below the horizontal. (a) What is the work done on the cart by friction? (b) What is the work done on the cart by the gravitational force? (c) What is the work done on the cart by the shopper? (d) Find the force the shopper exerts, using energy considerations. (e) What is the total work done on the cart?
(a) $-\text{700}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{J}$
(b) 0
(c) 700 J
(d) 38.6 N
(e) 0
Suppose the ski patrol lowers a rescue sled and victim, having a total mass of 90.0 kg, down a $\text{60}\text{.}0\text{\xba}$ slope at constant speed, as shown in [link] . The coefficient of friction between the sled and the snow is 0.100. (a) How much work is done by friction as the sled moves 30.0 m along the hill? (b) How much work is done by the rope on the sled in this distance? (c) What is the work done by the gravitational force on the sled? (d) What is the total work done?
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