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Summary: This is Part 1 of the main lecture on 50 years IC journey.

The Journey of I.C.Technology from micro (1959) to nano (2009) era.-Part 1.

Keywords: Solid State Technology, PhotoVoltaic Cell, Cat’s Whisker, Single Crystal Silicon;

Summary: This is Part 1 of the main lecture on 50 years IC journey.

INTRODUCTION

Einstein had once remarked “ We stand on the shoulders of Giants”.

The experiences of the Savage Age laid the foundation of the Barbarian Age. The experiences of Barbarians laid the foundation of Agricultural Civilization. The Guild Houses of the Agricultural Society and the Maritime Traders with their mercantile capital paved the way for the Industrial Society. So to understand and appreciate the Integrated Circuit (IC) Technology evolution we must go to 18 th century during the renaissance sweeping the Western World. Table I.1 (Appendix I ) gives the road map of development of Solid State Technology , Table I.2 (Appendix I) gives the road map of development of Electronics and Integrated Circuit Technology and Table I.3 gives the development in Super Computers.

In early eighteenth century, metal as a conductor and its positive temperature coefficient of resistance was recognized. This was followed by the discovery of a class of solids which exhibited negative temperature coefficient of resistance. The passage of current caused thermal runaway increase in current. This gave birth to Semi-Conductors. Contact potential between dissimilar materials was observed. In a series of experiments photo-voltaic effects in Ag-AgCl interface and light dependent resistance in Selenium was observed. This was followed by the construction of PV-cell and point contact diode. Point contact diode was fabricated by pressing a wire-point on Galena(PbS). This was also known as cat’s whisker. The cat’s whisker replaced the coherer in Radio Receivers. J.C. Bose patented cat’s whisker diode and AT&T patented a Silicon Crystal diode. By early 20 th century point contact diode was widely used as diode peak detector in Radios. This point contact diode was replaced by Vacuum tube Diode. CuO-Se was developed as PV Cell.

In 1930 the theoretical basis for Solid State Technology was laid with the publication of “ Quantum Theory meets Semiconductors” by Alan F. Wilson. This book contained the Band Theory of Solids, thermal generation of electron-hole pairs and the concept of intrinsic and extrinsic semi-conductor. Solid State Processing led to the preparation of Electronic Grade Polycrystalline Silicon.

At the end of 1947, point contact Ge- Transistor was invented which behaved like pentodes by Shockley , Bardeen and Braittain. Its power gain was tested by building an oscillator. But point contact Ge-Transistor were unstable, unreliable and became non-functional above 75ºC. Hence a transition was made to single crystal diffused Silicon Transistor.

The first npn BJT made of pure single crystal Silicon at BELL Labs by rate growing technique (made by Morris Tanenbaum and announced at June 1954 IRE Solid State Device Research Conference. The same paper was published in peer reviewed Journal of Applied Physics in June 1955).

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Solid state physics and devices-the harbinger of third wave of civilization. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11170/1.89
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