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Summary: This is Part 1 of the main lecture on 50 years IC journey.

The Journey of I.C.Technology from micro (1959) to nano (2009) era.-Part 1.

Keywords: Solid State Technology, PhotoVoltaic Cell, Cat’s Whisker, Single Crystal Silicon;

Summary: This is Part 1 of the main lecture on 50 years IC journey.


Einstein had once remarked “ We stand on the shoulders of Giants”.

The experiences of the Savage Age laid the foundation of the Barbarian Age. The experiences of Barbarians laid the foundation of Agricultural Civilization. The Guild Houses of the Agricultural Society and the Maritime Traders with their mercantile capital paved the way for the Industrial Society. So to understand and appreciate the Integrated Circuit (IC) Technology evolution we must go to 18 th century during the renaissance sweeping the Western World. Table I.1 (Appendix I ) gives the road map of development of Solid State Technology , Table I.2 (Appendix I) gives the road map of development of Electronics and Integrated Circuit Technology and Table I.3 gives the development in Super Computers.

In early eighteenth century, metal as a conductor and its positive temperature coefficient of resistance was recognized. This was followed by the discovery of a class of solids which exhibited negative temperature coefficient of resistance. The passage of current caused thermal runaway increase in current. This gave birth to Semi-Conductors. Contact potential between dissimilar materials was observed. In a series of experiments photo-voltaic effects in Ag-AgCl interface and light dependent resistance in Selenium was observed. This was followed by the construction of PV-cell and point contact diode. Point contact diode was fabricated by pressing a wire-point on Galena(PbS). This was also known as cat’s whisker. The cat’s whisker replaced the coherer in Radio Receivers. J.C. Bose patented cat’s whisker diode and AT&T patented a Silicon Crystal diode. By early 20 th century point contact diode was widely used as diode peak detector in Radios. This point contact diode was replaced by Vacuum tube Diode. CuO-Se was developed as PV Cell.

In 1930 the theoretical basis for Solid State Technology was laid with the publication of “ Quantum Theory meets Semiconductors” by Alan F. Wilson. This book contained the Band Theory of Solids, thermal generation of electron-hole pairs and the concept of intrinsic and extrinsic semi-conductor. Solid State Processing led to the preparation of Electronic Grade Polycrystalline Silicon.

At the end of 1947, point contact Ge- Transistor was invented which behaved like pentodes by Shockley , Bardeen and Braittain. Its power gain was tested by building an oscillator. But point contact Ge-Transistor were unstable, unreliable and became non-functional above 75ºC. Hence a transition was made to single crystal diffused Silicon Transistor.

The first npn BJT made of pure single crystal Silicon at BELL Labs by rate growing technique (made by Morris Tanenbaum and announced at June 1954 IRE Solid State Device Research Conference. The same paper was published in peer reviewed Journal of Applied Physics in June 1955).

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Solid state physics and devices-the harbinger of third wave of civilization. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11170/1.89
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