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The Judiciary : The Supreme Court and the Subordinate Courts

The Judiciary administers the law independently of the Executive and this independence is safeguardedby the Constitution.

For more information, visit: SINGOV .


General Literacy rates (15 years and over) (2002): 93.7%

Literacy in two or more languages: 56%


Singapore, a highly developed and successful free market economy, enjoys a remarkably open and corruption-freeenvironment, stable prices, and a high per capita GDP. The economy depends heavily on exports, particularly in electronics andmanufacturing.

  • GDP (purchasing power parity): $109.4 billion (2003)
  • GDP – real growth rate: 1.1% (2003)
  • GDP – per capita purchasing power parity: $23,700 (2003)
  • GDP - composition by sector: (2003)
    • Agriculture: negligible
    • Industry: 32.2%
    • Services: 67.8%

Major industries: Shipping, banking, tourism, electrical&electronics, chemicals, and oil refining.

Trade (2002)
Sectors Amount S$ (billions)
Total trade 432
Total imports 208
Total exports 224

Major trading partners: US, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Japan


Labour force: 2,128,500

Employed persons: 2,017,400 (Males: 1,137,100; Females: 880,300)

Unemployment rate: 4.4%

Central Provident Fund : A social security savings scheme in which all employees and their employers contribute apercentage of their salary. Employees below 55 years contribute 20%while employers contribute 13%. Employees 55 years and above contribute at lower rates. In addition to providing security forold age, this fund can also be used for healthcare, home ownership and asset enhancement.

There are 3 million CPF members and their CPF balance stood at S$100.28 billion (as at 30 June 2003)

Wage policies : The National Wages Council made up of representatives from the government, employers groups&trade unions advises the government on wage policies, and issuesguidelines in line with long-term economic objectives. There are 70 registered employees' trade unions and 3 employer unions and onefederation of employee trade union, National Trade Union Congress (NTUC). NTUC works closely with the government and business sectorto look after workers' interest.


Port statistics (2002): Total no. of vessels calling at the Singapore port is 142,745

Airport statistics (up to 2002):

  • Total no. of aircraft movements: 174,820
  • Total passenger movements: 29 million

Total number of vehicles in Singapore (2002): 706,956 (of which 406,589 are cars and rental cars)

Forms of public transport : MRT, LRT, Bus, Taxi services


Forms of communications (June 2003):

  • Total no. of mobile phone users: 3,336,400 (80.1%)
  • Total no. of pager subscribers: 222,100 (5.3%)
  • Residential telephone lines: 1,915,700 (45.9%)

Total no. of Internet dial-up subscribers : 2,025,700 (48.7%)

Mass media

  • No. of local newspaper: 10 dailies with an average combined circulation of about 1.5 million (as of Oct 2001)
  • No. of foreign publications, journals&magazines: 5,500
  • No. of TV broadcasters: 2 groups (MediaCorp, SPH MediaWorks)
  • No. of radio broadcasters: 6 (MediaCorp Radio, UnionWorks, SAFRA Radio, National Arts Council, Redifussion and BBC WorldService)
  • No. of TV cable operator: 2 (Singapore Cable Vision, StarHub)
  • No. of radio channels (domestic): 18
  • No. of free terrestrial TV channels: 3
  • Cable TV subscribership: 341,907 persons of 31.83% of all cabled homes (as at 31 Oct 2002)
  • Internet dial-up penetration rate: 48.7% (as at June 2003)
  • Cable modem subscribers: 93,967 (Those who subscribed to SCV MaxOnline service to access Internet) (as of 31 Oct 2002)
  • ADSL subscribers: 108,600 (as at 31 Oct 2002)
  • No. of broadband users: 34% or 950,000 Singapore residents, 10 years or above (Survey on Broadband Usage, 2001)

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Innovate2005. OpenStax CNX. Feb 23, 2005 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10244/1.9
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