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Step b: peer discussion

Some instructors prefer that students always answer a clicker question individually (without discussion), before discussing in groups and answering the question again. Other instructors only ask students to answer individually before discussion some of the time, and other times will save time by simply encouraging students to think about the question (but not to answer it via clicker) before discussing with others. There is no evidence as to the superiority of either approach. We do recommend having at least some questions that students have to first answer on their own, particularly at the beginning of the term, so they do recognize they are expected to think for themselves and not simply depend on getting the answers from others around them. By watching and listening to the class, it is relatively easy to tell if most students are first analyzing the questions independently and expressing their own ideas, instead of automatically accepting the answer of another student in the group. Based on what you observe, you can readily change how the responses are collected to ensure this happens. We recommend never showing students the results before the end of the voting period, and not showing students the voting results of the class before peer discussion unless the results show a very wide distribution of opinions with no answer being the obvious favourite. Otherwise, many students will simply change their answer to go with the majority. On the other hand, if there is a 50-50 split in votes, showing students that the question has provoked a split response is an excellent motivator for productive discussion.

What does peer discussion do for students, instructors, and the classroom environment?

Peer discussion:

  1. Actively engages students in thinking about and discussing the concept/skill/idea;
  2. Improves both their understanding and their ability to communicate technical ideas;
  3. Gives students an opportunity to explain and defend their reasoning, and analyze others’ reasoning (to engage in scientific argument);
  4. Gives you a chance to hear what students are thinking (listen in on group discussions);
  5. Gives students a chance to voice their questions and hear those of others (realize they are not alone in struggling to master the material);
  6. Allows students to get help from others to clear up items of confusion; for example, misunderstanding of a technical term that they may have but others around them do not;
  7. Builds collegial intellectual atmosphere among students (which promotes learning);

Step c: vote

Voting on an answer:

  1. Gets students to commit to an answer and engages them in knowing the right answer. (They are vested in the outcome, but in a peer-anonymous way);
  2. Provides feedback to faculty (Have the students mastered this idea? Should I move on or spend more time on this topic?);
  3. Provides feedback to students (Am I understanding this? How does my understanding compare to the rest of the class?)

Step d: whole-class discussion

After voting, the instructor leads a whole-class discussion and provides wrap-up for the question. This wrap-up:

  1. Allows you and students to hear students’ reasoning for various answers;
  2. Gives students the chance to hear and respond to each others ideas;
  3. Gives you the opportunity to emphasize and support reasoning as important (“Why might someone pick B? Why is that answer tempting?”, or “Why did your group choose B?” are both somewhat less threatening ways to get students to offer their thinking. However, also telling students they are expected to come up with reasons in their peer discussions, and then calling on students in an obviously random manner to offer up reasons of their group has proven to be effective. This further encourages students to share and critique their reasons during peer group discussions.);
  4. Allows you to give feedback to the students on their thinking that is both timely and specific, the two elements that research has shown are essential for pedagogically useful feedback;
  5. Promotes understanding of the reasons why an answer choice is correct. If discussion focuses upon the thinking associated with right and wrong options, then students will learn both about the reasoning underlying the correct answer, and what is wrong with incorrect reasoning. (It is important to make sure this happens – correct reasoning for an answer is NOT typically obvious to students, even for many questions that nearly all of them answer correctly.). Finally, this helps students recognize that understanding rather than merely getting a correct answer is what is important both in the course and in the use of clicker questions. Data from our end of term student surveys on clicker use support this.
  6. Can generate additional questions revealing difficulties that you had not recognized, or introduce elements or applications of the topic that students find interesting and useful.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
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Source:  OpenStax, Clicker resource guide. OpenStax CNX. Apr 11, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10724/1.2
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