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Step b: peer discussion

Some instructors prefer that students always answer a clicker question individually (without discussion), before discussing in groups and answering the question again. Other instructors only ask students to answer individually before discussion some of the time, and other times will save time by simply encouraging students to think about the question (but not to answer it via clicker) before discussing with others. There is no evidence as to the superiority of either approach. We do recommend having at least some questions that students have to first answer on their own, particularly at the beginning of the term, so they do recognize they are expected to think for themselves and not simply depend on getting the answers from others around them. By watching and listening to the class, it is relatively easy to tell if most students are first analyzing the questions independently and expressing their own ideas, instead of automatically accepting the answer of another student in the group. Based on what you observe, you can readily change how the responses are collected to ensure this happens. We recommend never showing students the results before the end of the voting period, and not showing students the voting results of the class before peer discussion unless the results show a very wide distribution of opinions with no answer being the obvious favourite. Otherwise, many students will simply change their answer to go with the majority. On the other hand, if there is a 50-50 split in votes, showing students that the question has provoked a split response is an excellent motivator for productive discussion.

What does peer discussion do for students, instructors, and the classroom environment?

Peer discussion:

  1. Actively engages students in thinking about and discussing the concept/skill/idea;
  2. Improves both their understanding and their ability to communicate technical ideas;
  3. Gives students an opportunity to explain and defend their reasoning, and analyze others’ reasoning (to engage in scientific argument);
  4. Gives you a chance to hear what students are thinking (listen in on group discussions);
  5. Gives students a chance to voice their questions and hear those of others (realize they are not alone in struggling to master the material);
  6. Allows students to get help from others to clear up items of confusion; for example, misunderstanding of a technical term that they may have but others around them do not;
  7. Builds collegial intellectual atmosphere among students (which promotes learning);

Step c: vote

Voting on an answer:

  1. Gets students to commit to an answer and engages them in knowing the right answer. (They are vested in the outcome, but in a peer-anonymous way);
  2. Provides feedback to faculty (Have the students mastered this idea? Should I move on or spend more time on this topic?);
  3. Provides feedback to students (Am I understanding this? How does my understanding compare to the rest of the class?)

Step d: whole-class discussion

After voting, the instructor leads a whole-class discussion and provides wrap-up for the question. This wrap-up:

  1. Allows you and students to hear students’ reasoning for various answers;
  2. Gives students the chance to hear and respond to each others ideas;
  3. Gives you the opportunity to emphasize and support reasoning as important (“Why might someone pick B? Why is that answer tempting?”, or “Why did your group choose B?” are both somewhat less threatening ways to get students to offer their thinking. However, also telling students they are expected to come up with reasons in their peer discussions, and then calling on students in an obviously random manner to offer up reasons of their group has proven to be effective. This further encourages students to share and critique their reasons during peer group discussions.);
  4. Allows you to give feedback to the students on their thinking that is both timely and specific, the two elements that research has shown are essential for pedagogically useful feedback;
  5. Promotes understanding of the reasons why an answer choice is correct. If discussion focuses upon the thinking associated with right and wrong options, then students will learn both about the reasoning underlying the correct answer, and what is wrong with incorrect reasoning. (It is important to make sure this happens – correct reasoning for an answer is NOT typically obvious to students, even for many questions that nearly all of them answer correctly.). Finally, this helps students recognize that understanding rather than merely getting a correct answer is what is important both in the course and in the use of clicker questions. Data from our end of term student surveys on clicker use support this.
  6. Can generate additional questions revealing difficulties that you had not recognized, or introduce elements or applications of the topic that students find interesting and useful.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Clicker resource guide. OpenStax CNX. Apr 11, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10724/1.2
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