# 1.1 Parametric equations  (Page 4/14)

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Find two different sets of parametric equations to represent the graph of $y={x}^{2}+2x.$

One possibility is $x\left(t\right)=t,\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}y\left(t\right)={t}^{2}+2t.$ Another possibility is $x\left(t\right)=2t-3,\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}y\left(t\right)={\left(2t-3\right)}^{2}+2\left(2t-3\right)=4{t}^{2}-8t+3.$

There are, in fact, an infinite number of possibilities.

## Cycloids and other parametric curves

Imagine going on a bicycle ride through the country. The tires stay in contact with the road and rotate in a predictable pattern. Now suppose a very determined ant is tired after a long day and wants to get home. So he hangs onto the side of the tire and gets a free ride. The path that this ant travels down a straight road is called a cycloid    ( [link] ). A cycloid generated by a circle (or bicycle wheel) of radius a is given by the parametric equations

$x\left(t\right)=a\left(t-\text{sin}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}t\right),\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}y\left(t\right)=a\left(1-\text{cos}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}t\right).$

To see why this is true, consider the path that the center of the wheel takes. The center moves along the x -axis at a constant height equal to the radius of the wheel. If the radius is a , then the coordinates of the center can be given by the equations

$x\left(t\right)=at,\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}y\left(t\right)=a$

for any value of $t.$ Next, consider the ant, which rotates around the center along a circular path. If the bicycle is moving from left to right then the wheels are rotating in a clockwise direction. A possible parameterization of the circular motion of the ant (relative to the center of the wheel) is given by

$x\left(t\right)=\text{−}a\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{sin}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}t,\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}y\left(t\right)=\text{−}a\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{cos}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}t.$

(The negative sign is needed to reverse the orientation of the curve. If the negative sign were not there, we would have to imagine the wheel rotating counterclockwise.) Adding these equations together gives the equations for the cycloid.

$x\left(t\right)=a\left(t-\text{sin}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}t\right),\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}y\left(t\right)=a\left(1-\text{cos}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}t\right).$

Now suppose that the bicycle wheel doesn’t travel along a straight road but instead moves along the inside of a larger wheel, as in [link] . In this graph, the green circle is traveling around the blue circle in a counterclockwise direction. A point on the edge of the green circle traces out the red graph, which is called a hypocycloid .

The general parametric equations for a hypocycloid are

$\begin{array}{}\\ \\ x\left(t\right)=\left(a-b\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{cos}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}t+b\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{cos}\left(\frac{a-b}{b}\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}t\hfill \\ y\left(t\right)=\left(a-b\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{sin}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}t-b\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{sin}\left(\frac{a-b}{b}\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}t.\hfill \end{array}$

These equations are a bit more complicated, but the derivation is somewhat similar to the equations for the cycloid. In this case we assume the radius of the larger circle is a and the radius of the smaller circle is b. Then the center of the wheel travels along a circle of radius $a-b.$ This fact explains the first term in each equation above. The period of the second trigonometric function in both $x\left(t\right)$ and $y\left(t\right)$ is equal to $\frac{2\pi b}{a-b}.$

The ratio $\frac{a}{b}$ is related to the number of cusps on the graph (cusps are the corners or pointed ends of the graph), as illustrated in [link] . This ratio can lead to some very interesting graphs, depending on whether or not the ratio is rational. [link] corresponds to $a=4$ and $b=1.$ The result is a hypocycloid with four cusps. [link] shows some other possibilities. The last two hypocycloids have irrational values for $\frac{a}{b}.$ In these cases the hypocycloids have an infinite number of cusps, so they never return to their starting point. These are examples of what are known as space-filling curves .

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
can you provide the details of the parametric equations for the lines that defince doubly-ruled surfeces (huperbolids of one sheet and hyperbolic paraboloid). Can you explain each of the variables in the equations?