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Note that [link] lists many diagnostic uses for 99m Tc size 12{"" lSup { size 8{"99m"} } "Tc"} {} , where “m” stands for a metastable state of the technetium nucleus. Perhaps 80 percent of all radiopharmaceutical procedures employ 99m Tc size 12{"" lSup { size 8{"99m"} } "Tc"} {} because of its many advantages. One is that the decay of its metastable state produces a single, easily identified 0.142-MeV γ ray. Additionally, the radiation dose to the patient is limited by the short 6.0-h half-life of 99m Tc . And, although its half-life is short, it is easily and continuously produced on site. The basic process for production is neutron activation of molybdenum, which quickly β decays into 99m Tc . Technetium-99m can be attached to many compounds to allow the imaging of the skeleton, heart, lungs, kidneys, etc.

[link] shows one of the simpler methods of imaging the concentration of nuclear activity, employing a device called an Anger camera     or gamma camera    . A piece of lead with holes bored through it collimates γ size 12{γ} {} rays emerging from the patient, allowing detectors to receive γ size 12{γ} {} rays from specific directions only. The computer analysis of detector signals produces an image. One of the disadvantages of this detection method is that there is no depth information (i.e., it provides a two-dimensional view of the tumor as opposed to a three-dimensional view), because radiation from any location under that detector produces a signal.

The image shows the head of a man scanned by an Anger camera. The camera consists of a lead collimator and array of detectors. Gamma rays emerging from the man’s head pass through the lead collimator and produce light flashes in the scintillators. The photomultiplier tubes convert the light output to electrical signals for computer image generation.
An Anger or gamma camera consists of a lead collimator and an array of detectors. Gamma rays produce light flashes in the scintillators. The light output is converted to an electrical signal by the photomultipliers. A computer constructs an image from the detector output.

Imaging techniques much like those in x-ray computed tomography (CT) scans use nuclear activity in patients to form three-dimensional images. [link] shows a patient in a circular array of detectors that may be stationary or rotated, with detector output used by a computer to construct a detailed image. This technique is called single-photon-emission computed tomography(SPECT) or sometimes simply SPET. The spatial resolution of this technique is poor, about 1 cm, but the contrast (i.e. the difference in visual properties that makes an object distinguishable from other objects and the background) is good.

A man lying down, going through a cylindrical scanning machine.
SPECT uses a geometry similar to a CT scanner to form an image of the concentration of a radiopharmaceutical compound. (credit: Woldo, Wikimedia Commons)

Images produced by β + emitters have become important in recent years. When the emitted positron ( β + ) encounters an electron, mutual annihilation occurs, producing two γ rays. These γ rays have identical 0.511-MeV energies (the energy comes from the destruction of an electron or positron mass) and they move directly away from one another, allowing detectors to determine their point of origin accurately, as shown in [link] . The system is called positron emission tomography (PET)    . It requires detectors on opposite sides to simultaneously (i.e., at the same time) detect photons of 0.511-MeV energy and utilizes computer imaging techniques similar to those in SPECT and CT scans. Examples of β + size 12{β rSup { size 8{+{}} } } {} -emitting isotopes used in PET are 11 C size 12{"" lSup { size 8{"11"} } C} {} , 13 N size 12{"" lSup { size 8{"13"} } N} {} , 15 O size 12{"" lSup { size 8{"15"} } O} {} , and 18 F , as seen in [link] . This list includes C, N, and O, and so they have the advantage of being able to function as tags for natural body compounds. Its resolution of 0.5 cm is better than that of SPECT; the accuracy and sensitivity of PET scans make them useful for examining the brain’s anatomy and function. The brain’s use of oxygen and water can be monitored with 15 O . PET is used extensively for diagnosing brain disorders. It can note decreased metabolism in certain regions prior to a confirmation of Alzheimer’s disease. PET can locate regions in the brain that become active when a person carries out specific activities, such as speaking, closing their eyes, and so on.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Physics for the modern world. OpenStax CNX. Sep 16, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11865/1.3
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