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Many of the precautions mentioned above are expensive to apply, and are not even always practicable. Developing countries cannot afford them, thus the chances are slight that they will apply these possible solutions. Therefore the impact of floods remains a substantial problem in these developing countries.

Activity 4:

To find solutions that will prevent floods

[lo 2.3]

Can you think of any other solutions that will prevent floods?


Learning Outcomes(LOs)
LO 2
GEOGRAPHICAL KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDINGThe learner will be able to demonstrate geographical and environmental knowledge and understanding.
Assessment standards(ASe)
We know this when the learner:
2.1 describes and explains how natural hazards such as volcanoes, earthquakes and flooding occur, and their impact on human lives and socio-economic activities [people and places];2.2 investigates and explains why some people face a higher risk than others with respect to natural hazards [people and resources];2.3 identifies how risks and hazards can be managed [people and the environment].


Activity 1:

  • The earth’s climate is presently changing. It is also a well-known fact that the climate of the earth has indeed changed in the past – think of the earlier ice age.
  • It is highly probable that the earth’s climate will change in future. This will certainly not happen in our lifetime. It is a gradual process that takes place over millions of years.
  • We know that there has lately been a lot of talk about the so-called “hothouse effect” and “global heating”. This is true, but the world is surely not going to change into a melting-pot in a few years’ time.
  • Research has shown that parts of South Africa experience periods of wet and dry conditions. A wet period lasting from 7 - 9 years is usually alternated with a dry period of about 7 - 9 years. Past forecasts have indicated that the 1990’s would be “wetter”, followed by “drier” years after 2000. This seems to be quite accurate if we look at the present situation.

Activity 2:

Learners do research on the results of floods.

They could possibly elaborate on some of these answers:

  • Loss of lives;
  • People left homeless, causing famine and disease;
  • Houses, buildings and roads are damaged. a Complete town can be wiped out in this way;
  • Electricity, water and sewage services are destroyed;
  • Everything is buried under mud;
  • Serious pollution (especially water pollution) causes health hazards;
  • People lose all their personal belongings, crops and/or livestock. This has serious financial implications for the population and the government alike;
  • Damwalls may break, causing floods. The country’s productivity is adversely affected and the economy is put under severe pressure;

Communication services break down. There is no contact with the outside world and rescue teams cannot reach the area.

Activity 3:

  • As squatter camps usually spring up in lower-lying, poorly drained areas, the impact of floods is even worse there.
  • People are left homeless and the informal houses are flooded or completely destroyed.
  • People may drown.
  • People lose all their personal belongings and become even poorer, for they have no other reserves.
  • Electricity, water and sewage services are interrupted, if it ever existed.
  • Transport systems are damaged and people cannot evacuate the area.

Activity 4:

Learners try and find possible solutions for floods and state their own views.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 7. OpenStax CNX. Sep 09, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11021/1.1
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