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The bodies of people and animals were strewn about, which caused a health risk. This caused the water to become polluted, and another health risk reared its ugly head: cholera.

A similar situation occurred during the flood at Laingsburg on January 25th, 1981.

Activity 2:

To make a list of the consequences a flood has for people

[lo 2.1]

  • Read newspaper articles about these and other floods that occurred recently. Make your own comprehensive list of the CONSEQUENCES a flood has on the lives of people as well as on their socio-economic activities.

3. Why some people are at a higher risk of being affected by a flood than others

In many parts of the developing countries of the world the natural environment is misused and has become depleted. Because poor people usually produce for their own use only and never fertilise their land, the soil becomes impoverished and exhausted. Incorrect irrigation methods exacerbate the situation and the richer surface soil is swept away. Harvests become poorer every season and the people are faced with famine. No crop rotation takes place and cattle destroy the natural vegetation. For these people their wealth lies in the number of cattle they own, not in the quality of their cattle. Thus too many cattle are put to graze on a certain piece of land, which then destroys that land. If a flood were to occur in such an environment, there would be no natural vegetation to stem the water and everything would be washed away.

As soon as life in a rural area becomes unbearable people start to migrate to cities in search of possible employment. Since they are poor, they are forced to live in squatter camps. These squatter camps or informal settlements are usually located on less suitable or even dangerous terrain. As soon as a flood occurs these people’s houses, property and lives are in great danger. Here you only have to think of the wet Cape Flats with its thousands of homes.

Activity 3:

To study the impact of a flood on a residential area

[lo 2.1]

  • How do you think a flood will particularly affect a squatter camp?

4. Preventative measures: risk management and risk reduction

What can be done about floods?

The answer to this question is usually, “Not much”. However, people can take certain preventative steps to try to reduce the risk of future floods. Below are a few possibilities:

  • Installing flood-warning systems near important rivers where large populations are located.
  • Building dikes, flood banks and weirs to help control the flow of water.
  • Changing the flow channels of rivers – e.g. guiding a river away from a populated area.
  • Enforcing strict regulations with regard to construction sites, building codes and construction requirements.
  • Educating people to use the natural environment carefully and wisely, while paying special attention to training with regard to environment-friendly farming techniques.
  • Stabilising riverbanks.
  • Controlling and improving ditches that are badly eroded.
  • Planting vegetation in barren areas.
  • Monitoring weather predictions carefully, and taking the necessary precautions where possible.

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 7. OpenStax CNX. Sep 09, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11021/1.1
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