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An introduction to Buckminsterfullerenes: Their history and discovery, their unique chemical and physical properties, methods in fullerene production, and the many possible uses of "buckyballs" that may be seen in the near future.
This module was developed as part of a Rice University Class called " Nanotechnology: Content and Context " initially funded by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. EEC-0407237. It was conceived, researched, written and edited by students in the Fall 2005 version of the class, and reviewed by participating professors.

“This year's Nobel Prize in Chemistry has implications for all the natural sciences. The seeds of thediscovery were sowed by a desire to understand the behavior of carbon in red giant stars and interstellar gas clouds. Thediscovery of fullerenes has expanded our knowledge and changed our thinking in chemistry and physics. It has given us new hypotheseson the occurrence of carbon in the universe. It has also led us to discover small quantities of fullerenes in geological formations.Fullerenes are probably present in much larger amounts on earth than previously believed. It has been shown that most sooty flamescontain small quantities of fullerenes. Think of this the next time you light a candle!”

-From the presentation speech for the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1996

Introduction

In 1996, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, the most prestigiousaward in the world for chemists, to Richard Smalley, Robert Curl, and Harold Kroto for their discovery of fullerenes. They discoveredfullerenes (also called buckyballs) in 1985, but the special properties of the buckyballs took a few years to prove andcategorize. Although by 1996 no practical applications of buckyballs had been produced, scientists appreciated the directionthis discovery based in organic chemistry had led scientific research, as well as its specific contributions to various otherfields. The accidental discovery of fullerenes also emphasizes the benefits and unexpected results which can arise when scientistswith different backgrounds and research aims collaborate in the laboratory.

What are buckyballs?

Before going into detail about the actual buckyball, we should discuss the element that makes its structurepossible, carbon. Carbon is the sixth element on the periodic table, and has been found to be at least a partial constituent inover 90 per cent of all chemicals known to man. Indeed, its electron-bonding properties grant it a versatility specific tocarbon, allowing it to be so widely functionalized, and more importantly, the reason for life on Earth. Anything that is livingis necessarily chemically based on Carbon atoms, and for this reason, substances containing carbon are called organic compounds,and the study of them is called organic chemistry.

Though carbon is involved in chemistry with all sorts of other elements and compounds, it can also exist inpure carbon states such as graphite and diamond. Graphite and diamond are two different allotropes of carbon. An allotrope is aspecific physical arrangement of atoms of an element. So although diamond and graphite are both pure carbon, because the crystallinestructure of each is significantly different, their chemical and physical properties (as well as value) are very different.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel

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Source:  OpenStax, Nanomaterials and nanotechnology. OpenStax CNX. May 07, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10700/1.13
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