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Art connection

Carbon is indicated by its atomic symbol, a capital C. Carbon has the atomic number six and two stable isotopes, carbon-12 and carbon-13.
Carbon has an atomic number of six, and two stable isotopes with mass numbers of twelve and thirteen, respectively. Its relative atomic mass is 12.011

How many neutrons do carbon-12 and carbon-13 have, respectively?

Isotopes

Isotopes are different forms of an element that have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons. Some elements—such as carbon, potassium, and uranium—have naturally occurring isotopes. Carbon-12 contains six protons, six neutrons, and six electrons; therefore, it has a mass number of 12 (six protons and six neutrons). Carbon-14 contains six protons, eight neutrons, and six electrons; its atomic mass is 14 (six protons and eight neutrons). These two alternate forms of carbon are isotopes. Some isotopes may emit neutrons, protons, and electrons, and attain a more stable atomic configuration (lower level of potential energy); these are radioactive isotopes, or radioisotopes . Radioactive decay (carbon-14 losing neutrons to eventually become carbon-12) describes the energy loss that occurs when an unstable atom’s nucleus releases radiation.

Evolution connection

Carbon dating

Carbon is normally present in the atmosphere in the form of gaseous compounds like carbon dioxide and methane. Carbon-14 ( 14 C) is a naturally occurring radioisotope that is created in the atmosphere from atmospheric 14 N (nitrogen) by the addition of a neutron and the loss of a proton because of cosmic rays. This is a continuous process, so more 14 C is always being created. As a living organism incorporates 14 C initially as carbon dioxide fixed in the process of photosynthesis, the relative amount of 14 C in its body is equal to the concentration of 14 C in the atmosphere. When an organism dies, it is no longer ingesting 14 C, so the ratio between 14 C and 12 C will decline as 14 C decays gradually to 14 N by a process called beta decay—the emission of electrons or positrons. This decay gives off energy in a slow process.

After approximately 5,730 years, half of the starting concentration of 14 C will have been converted back to 14 N. The time it takes for half of the original concentration of an isotope to decay back to its more stable form is called its half-life. Because the half-life of 14 C is long, it is used to date formerly living objects such as old bones or wood. Comparing the ratio of the 14 C concentration found in an object to the amount of 14 C detected in the atmosphere, the amount of the isotope that has not yet decayed can be determined. On the basis of this amount, the age of the material, such as the pygmy mammoth shown in [link] , can be calculated with accuracy if it is not much older than about 50,000 years. Other elements have isotopes with different half lives. For example, 40 K (potassium-40) has a half-life of 1.25 billion years, and 235 U (Uranium 235) has a half-life of about 700 million years. Through the use of radiometric dating, scientists can study the age of fossils or other remains of extinct organisms to understand how organisms have evolved from earlier species.

Photo shows scientists unearthing a mammoth skeleton.
The age of carbon-containing remains less than about 50,000 years old, such as this pygmy mammoth, can be determined using carbon dating. (credit: Bill Faulkner, NPS)

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Good
Which part of the light independent reactions could be affected if a cell could not produce enzyme RuBisCO?
catli Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Ap biology - part 1: the cell. OpenStax CNX. Oct 02, 2014 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11711/1.1
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