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Percent uncertainty

One method of expressing uncertainty is as a percent of the measured value. If a measurement A size 12{A} {} is expressed with uncertainty, δA size 12{δA} {} , the percent uncertainty    (%unc) is defined to be

% unc = δA A × 100% . size 12{%" unc = " { {δA} over {A} } times "100"%} {}

Calculating percent uncertainty: a bag of apples

A grocery store sells 5-lb size 12{ "5-lb" } {} bags of apples. You purchase four bags over the course of a month and weigh the apples each time. You obtain the following measurements:

  • Week 1 weight: 4.8 lb size 12{ "4.8 lb" } {}
  • Week 2 weight: 5.3 lb size 12{ "5.3 lb" } {}
  • Week 3 weight: 4.9 lb size 12{ "4.9 lb" } {}
  • Week 4 weight: 5.4 lb size 12{ "5.4 lb" } {}

You determine that the weight of the 5-lb size 12{ "5-lb" } {} bag has an uncertainty of ± 0 . 4 lb size 12{ +- 0 "." 4`"lb"} {} . What is the percent uncertainty of the bag’s weight?

Strategy

First, observe that the expected value of the bag’s weight, A size 12{A} {} , is 5 lb. The uncertainty in this value, δA size 12{δA} {} , is 0.4 lb. We can use the following equation to determine the percent uncertainty of the weight:

% unc = δA A × 100% . size 12{%" unc = " { {δA} over {A} } times "100"%} {}

Solution

Plug the known values into the equation:

% unc = 0 . 4  lb 5  lb × 100% = 8 % . size 12{%" unc = " { {0 "." 4" lb"} over {5" lb"} } times "100"%=8%} {}

Discussion

We can conclude that the weight of the apple bag is 5 lb ± 8 % size 12{5`"lb" +- 8%} {} . Consider how this percent uncertainty would change if the bag of apples were half as heavy, but the uncertainty in the weight remained the same. Hint for future calculations: when calculating percent uncertainty, always remember that you must multiply the fraction by 100%. If you do not do this, you will have a decimal quantity, not a percent value.

Uncertainties in calculations

There is an uncertainty in anything calculated from measured quantities. For example, the area of a floor calculated from measurements of its length and width has an uncertainty because the length and width have uncertainties. How big is the uncertainty in something you calculate by multiplication or division? If the measurements going into the calculation have small uncertainties (a few percent or less), then the method of adding percents    can be used for multiplication or division. This method says that the percent uncertainty in a quantity calculated by multiplication or division is the sum of the percent uncertainties in the items used to make the calculation . For example, if a floor has a length of 4 . 00 m size 12{4 "." "00"" m"} {} and a width of 3 . 00 m size 12{3 "." "00"" m"} {} , with uncertainties of 2% size 12{2%} {} and 1% size 12{1%} {} , respectively, then the area of the floor is 12 . 0 m 2 size 12{"12" "." 0" m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} and has an uncertainty of 3% size 12{3%} {} . (Expressed as an area this is 0 . 36 m 2 size 12{0 "." "36"" m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} , which we round to 0 . 4 m 2 size 12{0 "." 4" m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} since the area of the floor is given to a tenth of a square meter.)

A high school track coach has just purchased a new stopwatch. The stopwatch manual states that the stopwatch has an uncertainty of ± 0 . 05 s size 12{ +- 0 "." "05"`s} {} . Runners on the track coach’s team regularly clock 100-m sprints of 11.49 s size 12{"11.49 s"} {} to 15.01 s size 12{"15.01 s"} {} . At the school’s last track meet, the first-place sprinter came in at 12 . 04 s size 12{"12" "." "04"" s"} {} and the second-place sprinter came in at 12 . 07 s size 12{"12" "." "07"" s"} {} . Will the coach’s new stopwatch be helpful in timing the sprint team? Why or why not?

No, the uncertainty in the stopwatch is too great to effectively differentiate between the sprint times.

Precision of measuring tools and significant figures

An important factor in the accuracy and precision of measurements involves the precision of the measuring tool. In general, a precise measuring tool is one that can measure values in very small increments. For example, a standard ruler can measure length to the nearest millimeter, while a caliper can measure length to the nearest 0.01 millimeter. The caliper is a more precise measuring tool because it can measure extremely small differences in length. The more precise the measuring tool, the more precise and accurate the measurements can be.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Selected chapters of college physics for secondary 5. OpenStax CNX. Jun 19, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11535/1.1
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