# 0.9 Rice air curriculum - lesson 2 (teacher): physical properties

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Suggested Time: 65 minutes. Science TEKS: 3.11, 4.6, 5.3, 5.1, 5.2, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6 .Math TEKS: 5.11, 5.14, 5.15.

## Objective

Students will begin to take the following measurements outside—the amount of ozone in the air, surface temperature and air temperature, types of clouds in the air, humidity, and wind direction. These measurements will continue for five class periods. At this point in time, students do not have enough knowledge to analyze the results they get. Creating hypotheses, drawing conclusions, and communicating their findings about the trends in data will occur later in the course. However, you can involve the students in experimental design by helping to select exactly where to take the measurements.

Students will spend a lot of this lesson getting familiar to the tools they will be using to take measurements at the beginning and end of the class. Teachers should refrain from explaining too much about how the instruments work, unless necessary, so as to allow students the freedom to explore on their own how to make the measurements Students will be introduced to the layers of the atmosphere and will learn about two of the tangible properties of the atmosphere that they will be measuring with their GLOBE instruments: temperature and winds.

## Background information

The Earth’s atmosphere is divided into five layers. The first layer, closest to earth’s surface, is the troposphere . This is where all of our weather occurs—clouds, wind, lightning, hurricanes, rain, snow, and tornadoes. Because air density is greatest near the surface and diminishes with height, the troposphere contains about 80% of the atmosphere’s mass. All of the air we breathe is in the troposphere, so it is here that air pollution is of greatest concern. Temperature is typically warmest near the ground and cools with height in the troposphere, which helps drive the weather and the mixing of pollutants.

The next layer is the stratosphere . This is where ultraviolet radiation from the sun reacts with oxygen to form ozone gas and the ozone layer. The oxygen and the ozone layer protect us from the cancer-causing ultraviolet radiation. This absorption of radiation causes temperatures to increase with height in the stratosphere, in contrast to cooling with height in the troposphere. This temperature pattern causes the stratosphere to be very stable; in other words, air rises and sinks very slowly in this layer.

The next layer is the mesosphere , which stops meteors and other fragments of things that come from space. The next layer is the thermosphere, where space shuttles orbit the earth. Finally, the last layer is the exosphere, which is the outermost portion of our atmosphere and is the layer in which satellites orbit the Earth. Outside of this layer lies space.

The two most obvious ways that we experience the atmosphere are through its temperature and its winds. Temperature is a physical property that measures how “hot” or “cold” something is. Microscopically, it is a measure of the average kinetic energy or speed of the molecules that make up the system. Temperature can be measured in Kelvin, Celsius, and Fahrenheit.

#### Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
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