# 0.9 Electrochemistry/alchemy: molar mass of cu and turning cu into  (Page 2/4)

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Electrolysis can be used for purifying a metal through the electrolytic dissolution of an impure anode and the subsequent re-crystallization of the pure metal on the cathode. The impurities are left behind in solution. Copper is refined commercially by this electrolytic technique.

Electrolysis is often used for electroplating a metal to another material acting as the cathode. The other material must also be electrically conducting. Non-conducting materials, such as leaves, can also be plated by first being painted with a metallic conductive paint. Silver plating can be done with a silver anode and the object to be plated as the cathode.

Electrolytic reduction (cathodic reduction) has developed into a useful technique for the restoration of artifacts such as corroded nails and encrusted silver. In the case of silver, the degradation is usually due to the surface formation of insoluble (black) silver sulfide ( ${\text{Ag}}_{2}S$ ). The artifact (a silver coin, for example) is attached to the negative electrode of the electrolysis cell. The ${\text{Ag}}^{+}$ ions of the silver sulfide pick up electrons and are converted back to metallic silver:

${\text{Ag}}_{2}S\left(s\right)+{\text{2e}}^{-}\to \text{2Ag}\left(s\right)+{S}^{2-}\left(\text{aq}\right)$

The sulfide ions are swept away by the water and the surface of the object is restored.

In this experiment, you will electroplate copper quantitatively to a copper cathode (the anode is also composed of copper). The current is measured over an interval of approximately one hour so that the amount of charge passing through the cell is known. The molar mass of copper is calculated from its equivalent mass using Faraday’s second law. In the second part of the experiment, you will use turn copper into gold!

## Background information

In the 1830s, Michael Faraday published his experiments using the recently discovered voltaic column to decompose substances through the use of electric current. Electrolysis is an oxidation-reduction process involving a conversion of electrical energy to chemical energy. The electrolytic cell is a galvanic cell operating in reverse. The automobile battery is acts as a collection of galvanic cells when delivering electric current, but acts as a collection of electrolytic cells when being recharged.

Faraday first described the quantitative relationships between the amount of electric charge (number of electrons) that has passed through an electrolytic cell and the amount of materials that have formed at the electrodes. These are summarized as Faraday’s Laws of Electrolysis:

• The mass of substance reacting at an electrode is directly proportional to the total amount of electric charge that has passed through the cell.
• The masses of the substances reacting at the electrodes are in direct ratio to their equivalent masses. The equivalent mass of a reacting substance is defined as its mass that reacts with one mole of electrons in the oxidation or reduction process. In the case of sodium and chlorine, the equivalent masses of the sodium and chlorine are equal to their molar masses; the equivalent mass of copper is equal to its molar mass divided by two. The second law is a consequence of the stoichiometry of the balanced half-reactions.

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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