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During the heyday of pluralism, its beneficiaries were primarily the academic physical sciences. Biomedical investigators reliedheavily on the National Institutes of Health and—in the case of those engaged in non-medically relevant research—the National Science Foundation. Yet despitetense moments occasioned by President Johnson’s threat to redirect the NIH’s budget towards applied research, the agency continued to prosper even asgovernment support for more broadly-based basic research declined. And academically-based biomedical scientists quietly increased their politicalstrength relative to the once dominant physical scientists.

The shock evident among academic scientists at the revelation that basic research was neither a protected nor sacrosanct componentof the federal budget provides a measure of their political naïveté. There was a considerable uproar over the politicization of science policy in 1971, whenNixon withdrew his nomination of Cornell University chemist Franklin Long as director of the NSF because of Long’s opposition to the anti-ballistic missile.Although the administration ultimately backed down, Long refused the nomination, showing how dismayed the science community was over the blurring of the boundarybetween politics and scientific research.

President Lyndon Johnson and physicist Edward Condon in the White House. Courtesy AIP Emilio Segre Visual Archives.

The schism between the Department of Defense and academia was also abetted by a government-wide shift toward targeted research atthe expense of the kind of undirected basic research favored in Science—the Endless Frontier . Even the National Science Foundation, while remaining the strongest supporter of university basicresearch, established a Research Applied to National Needs (RANN) program in 1971. Although RANN never amounted to more than 13 percent of the agency’sbudget, its mere existence was a significant departure from Vannevar Bush’s vision.

The nixon years

By the time the presidential science advisory system was dismantled in January 1973, government leadership for national sciencepolicy was already shifting from the executive to the legislative branch, specifically to the House Subcommittee on Science, Research and Development.Reacting to the changing political environment for science, the subcommittee held extensive hearings between July and September 1970 to review the previoustwenty-five years of science policy. One recommendation was to strengthen the presidential science advisory system. Another called for a national sciencepolicy to be formulated by the administration, transmitted to Congress, “maintained as a public law,” and “incorporated into the operations of everydepartment or agency which utilizes science and technology in its mission.”

During the same period, Congress, concerned about its dependence on the executive branch for scientific advice and analysis, moved tostrengthen its own capabilities, creating the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) in 1972. The OTA legislation also established an oversight committeeconsisting of five senators (among them Edward M. Kennedy).

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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