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During the heyday of pluralism, its beneficiaries were primarily the academic physical sciences. Biomedical investigators reliedheavily on the National Institutes of Health and—in the case of those engaged in non-medically relevant research—the National Science Foundation. Yet despitetense moments occasioned by President Johnson’s threat to redirect the NIH’s budget towards applied research, the agency continued to prosper even asgovernment support for more broadly-based basic research declined. And academically-based biomedical scientists quietly increased their politicalstrength relative to the once dominant physical scientists.

The shock evident among academic scientists at the revelation that basic research was neither a protected nor sacrosanct componentof the federal budget provides a measure of their political naïveté. There was a considerable uproar over the politicization of science policy in 1971, whenNixon withdrew his nomination of Cornell University chemist Franklin Long as director of the NSF because of Long’s opposition to the anti-ballistic missile.Although the administration ultimately backed down, Long refused the nomination, showing how dismayed the science community was over the blurring of the boundarybetween politics and scientific research.

President Lyndon Johnson and physicist Edward Condon in the White House. Courtesy AIP Emilio Segre Visual Archives.

The schism between the Department of Defense and academia was also abetted by a government-wide shift toward targeted research atthe expense of the kind of undirected basic research favored in Science—the Endless Frontier . Even the National Science Foundation, while remaining the strongest supporter of university basicresearch, established a Research Applied to National Needs (RANN) program in 1971. Although RANN never amounted to more than 13 percent of the agency’sbudget, its mere existence was a significant departure from Vannevar Bush’s vision.

The nixon years

By the time the presidential science advisory system was dismantled in January 1973, government leadership for national sciencepolicy was already shifting from the executive to the legislative branch, specifically to the House Subcommittee on Science, Research and Development.Reacting to the changing political environment for science, the subcommittee held extensive hearings between July and September 1970 to review the previoustwenty-five years of science policy. One recommendation was to strengthen the presidential science advisory system. Another called for a national sciencepolicy to be formulated by the administration, transmitted to Congress, “maintained as a public law,” and “incorporated into the operations of everydepartment or agency which utilizes science and technology in its mission.”

During the same period, Congress, concerned about its dependence on the executive branch for scientific advice and analysis, moved tostrengthen its own capabilities, creating the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) in 1972. The OTA legislation also established an oversight committeeconsisting of five senators (among them Edward M. Kennedy).

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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