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The one agency that may have suffered most from Johnson’s displeasure was the National Science Foundation, whose constant-dollarbudget fell from $414 million in fiscal year 1967 to $269 million in 1970, and thereafter began to rise again, although slowly. Reductions in NSF’s budgetresulted from decisions made by the Johnson administration, the Nixon administration, and congressional actions. During the five-year period from 1965through 1969, the Bureau of the Budget reduced NSF’s budget request by anaverage of more than 15 percent; during those same year, Congress reduced that request by an additional 12 percent on average. Comparable average reductionsduring the Kennedy administration were 8 and 18 percent, respectively.

Only the National Institutes of Health were spared the budget axe during these years, with their basic research budget increasingcontinuously, except during fiscals years 1971 and 1973.

Shifting support patterns, shifting perceptions

During the Vietnam era, the academic community believed that the science-government compact forged in the late 1940s andnurtured through the Truman, Eisenhower, and Kennedy administrations was being abrogated by the federal government. Certainly, the pluralistic research supportsystem, accepted by default after Vannevar Bush’s proposal of a single federal basic research support agency failed to materialize, was seriously weakenedduring the Johnson and Nixon years. The pluralistic system permitted scientists and engineers to submit funding proposals to morethan one federal organization. For example, NASA, the Department of Energy, and the National Science Foundation all supported (and still support) research inthe mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences; basic research in the biological sciences was (and is) supported by the National Institutes of Health,the National Science Foundation, and the Department of Agriculture. According to the pluralistic concept, the fact that more than one federal agencyprovided funds for university basic research assured a fair hearing in Washington for any good idea advanced by a competent investigator. An importantcorollary was that the National Science Foundation, whose primary mission was to support meritorious basic research, would act as a “balance wheel” to assure anequitable distribution of basic research support among scientific disciplines. The decrease in federal support during the Johnson and Nixon administrations,along with congressional fragmentation, undercut this balance-wheel concept.

In fiscal year 1967, the National Science Foundation ranked second among the five principal federal agencies supporting basicresearch, preceded by the National Institutes of Health and followed, respectively, by NASA, the AEC/ERDA/DoE, and the Department of Defense. A yearlater, the NSF ranked last, where it remained until fiscal year 1972, when it again moved into second place. Meanwhile, the basic research budgets of NASA,the AEC and the DoD continued to decline. As these agencies cut back or eliminated specific basic research programs, the pressure on the NationalScience Foundation to pick up support increased beyond its means to do so. For example, rocks from the moon gathered by expeditions supported by NASA were distributed to several universities—butwithout financial support for their analysis. Thus, the affected geologists turned to NSF for support.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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