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The one agency that may have suffered most from Johnson’s displeasure was the National Science Foundation, whose constant-dollarbudget fell from $414 million in fiscal year 1967 to $269 million in 1970, and thereafter began to rise again, although slowly. Reductions in NSF’s budgetresulted from decisions made by the Johnson administration, the Nixon administration, and congressional actions. During the five-year period from 1965through 1969, the Bureau of the Budget reduced NSF’s budget request by anaverage of more than 15 percent; during those same year, Congress reduced that request by an additional 12 percent on average. Comparable average reductionsduring the Kennedy administration were 8 and 18 percent, respectively.

Only the National Institutes of Health were spared the budget axe during these years, with their basic research budget increasingcontinuously, except during fiscals years 1971 and 1973.

Shifting support patterns, shifting perceptions

During the Vietnam era, the academic community believed that the science-government compact forged in the late 1940s andnurtured through the Truman, Eisenhower, and Kennedy administrations was being abrogated by the federal government. Certainly, the pluralistic research supportsystem, accepted by default after Vannevar Bush’s proposal of a single federal basic research support agency failed to materialize, was seriously weakenedduring the Johnson and Nixon years. The pluralistic system permitted scientists and engineers to submit funding proposals to morethan one federal organization. For example, NASA, the Department of Energy, and the National Science Foundation all supported (and still support) research inthe mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences; basic research in the biological sciences was (and is) supported by the National Institutes of Health,the National Science Foundation, and the Department of Agriculture. According to the pluralistic concept, the fact that more than one federal agencyprovided funds for university basic research assured a fair hearing in Washington for any good idea advanced by a competent investigator. An importantcorollary was that the National Science Foundation, whose primary mission was to support meritorious basic research, would act as a “balance wheel” to assure anequitable distribution of basic research support among scientific disciplines. The decrease in federal support during the Johnson and Nixon administrations,along with congressional fragmentation, undercut this balance-wheel concept.

In fiscal year 1967, the National Science Foundation ranked second among the five principal federal agencies supporting basicresearch, preceded by the National Institutes of Health and followed, respectively, by NASA, the AEC/ERDA/DoE, and the Department of Defense. A yearlater, the NSF ranked last, where it remained until fiscal year 1972, when it again moved into second place. Meanwhile, the basic research budgets of NASA,the AEC and the DoD continued to decline. As these agencies cut back or eliminated specific basic research programs, the pressure on the NationalScience Foundation to pick up support increased beyond its means to do so. For example, rocks from the moon gathered by expeditions supported by NASA were distributed to several universities—butwithout financial support for their analysis. Thus, the affected geologists turned to NSF for support.

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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