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Additionally, PSAC had little input into Johnson’s national defense priorities, the Department of Defense being perceived as morecompetent to deal with such issues. Moreover, Johnson’s personal interest in defense matters focused less on strategic issues than on the bewilderingguerilla war in Vietnam, for which PSAC had no ready solutions. Worse, in Johnson’s eyes, PSAC members represented the academic community, which was amongthe most vociferous critics of the Vietnam War.

Decline of federal research support

Since creation of the Office of Naval Research in 1946, the military had been among the most important supporters of universitybasic research. That support declined significantly in the early 1970s, partly because of the political activism of university scientists during the Johnsonand Nixon years.

Another important factor was the “Mansfield amendment” to the fiscal year 1970 Department of Defense Appropriations Act.Sponsored by Senator Mike Mansfield (D-MT), with the strong support of Senator William Fulbright (D AK), it banned military support of university research thatdid not directly relate to specific military objectives, the rationale being that the Department of Defense had too much money for R&D and was monopolizing too much research, including basic research in mathematics andphysics, to the detriment of the civilian science and technology agencies. Although the Mansfield amendment expired at the end of fiscal year 1970, thedepartment remained reluctant to support university basic research for many years.

Total federal R&D expenditures measured in terms of constant dollars, which had increased continuously since World War II, peakedduring fiscal year 1967 and thereafter declined through fiscal year 1976; constant-dollar federal expenditures for basic research peaked during fiscalyear 1969 and declined through fiscal year 1975 (Fig. 2). Analysis based on data from Science and Engineering Indicators during the years in question, and on James E.Katz, Presidential Politics and Science Policy (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1978). Much of the decline in basic research expenditures was due to declining appropriations inthree agencies: the Department of Defense, whose constant-dollar basic research expenditures declined by 30 percent between their peak 1970 value and their 1975low point; NASA, whose constant-dollar research expenditures were cut in half between 1969 and 1976; and the Atomic Energy Commission (and its successor, theEnergy Research and Development Administration [ERDA], then the Dept. of Energy[DoE]), whose expenditures for basic research were reduced by 36.8 percentbetween 1967 and 1974. Federal programs in several cabinet departments, primarily the Departments of Commerce and Interior, werecombined into the Energy Research and Development Agency (ERDA), along with the AEC, in 1974; ERDA and several additional cabinet-level bureaus were furthercombined into the Department of Energy in 1976.

Only in the last case canreductions be attributed directly to presidential displeasure. The Department of Defense reductions were caused by the Mansfield Act. NASA’s were a small part ofdrastic reductions in its total budget after the successful moon landing in July 1969; the Nixon administration, Congress, and the general public lost interestin manned space research after that event.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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