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Additionally, PSAC had little input into Johnson’s national defense priorities, the Department of Defense being perceived as morecompetent to deal with such issues. Moreover, Johnson’s personal interest in defense matters focused less on strategic issues than on the bewilderingguerilla war in Vietnam, for which PSAC had no ready solutions. Worse, in Johnson’s eyes, PSAC members represented the academic community, which was amongthe most vociferous critics of the Vietnam War.

Decline of federal research support

Since creation of the Office of Naval Research in 1946, the military had been among the most important supporters of universitybasic research. That support declined significantly in the early 1970s, partly because of the political activism of university scientists during the Johnsonand Nixon years.

Another important factor was the “Mansfield amendment” to the fiscal year 1970 Department of Defense Appropriations Act.Sponsored by Senator Mike Mansfield (D-MT), with the strong support of Senator William Fulbright (D AK), it banned military support of university research thatdid not directly relate to specific military objectives, the rationale being that the Department of Defense had too much money for R&D and was monopolizing too much research, including basic research in mathematics andphysics, to the detriment of the civilian science and technology agencies. Although the Mansfield amendment expired at the end of fiscal year 1970, thedepartment remained reluctant to support university basic research for many years.

Total federal R&D expenditures measured in terms of constant dollars, which had increased continuously since World War II, peakedduring fiscal year 1967 and thereafter declined through fiscal year 1976; constant-dollar federal expenditures for basic research peaked during fiscalyear 1969 and declined through fiscal year 1975 (Fig. 2). Analysis based on data from Science and Engineering Indicators during the years in question, and on James E.Katz, Presidential Politics and Science Policy (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1978). Much of the decline in basic research expenditures was due to declining appropriations inthree agencies: the Department of Defense, whose constant-dollar basic research expenditures declined by 30 percent between their peak 1970 value and their 1975low point; NASA, whose constant-dollar research expenditures were cut in half between 1969 and 1976; and the Atomic Energy Commission (and its successor, theEnergy Research and Development Administration [ERDA], then the Dept. of Energy[DoE]), whose expenditures for basic research were reduced by 36.8 percentbetween 1967 and 1974. Federal programs in several cabinet departments, primarily the Departments of Commerce and Interior, werecombined into the Energy Research and Development Agency (ERDA), along with the AEC, in 1974; ERDA and several additional cabinet-level bureaus were furthercombined into the Department of Energy in 1976.

Only in the last case canreductions be attributed directly to presidential displeasure. The Department of Defense reductions were caused by the Mansfield Act. NASA’s were a small part ofdrastic reductions in its total budget after the successful moon landing in July 1969; the Nixon administration, Congress, and the general public lost interestin manned space research after that event.

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
is this allso about nanoscale material
Almas
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
William
currently
William
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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