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Water is an abundant substance on earth and covers 71 percent of the earth's surface......



Water is an abundant substance on earth and covers 71 percent of the earth's surface. Earth’s water consists of three percent freshwater and 97 percent saltwater. All living organisms require water in order to live. In fact, they are mostly comprised of water. Water is also important for other reasons: as an agent of erosion it changes the morphology of the land; it acts as a buffer against extreme climate changes when present as a large body of water, and it helps flush away and dilute pollutants in the environment.

The physical characteristics of water influence the way life on earth exists. The unique characteristics of water are:

  1. Water is a liquid at room temperature and over a relatively wide temperature range (0 -100°C). This wide range encompasses the annual mean temperature of most biological environments.
  2. A relatively large amount of energy is required to raise the temperature of water (i.e., it has a high heat capacity ). As a result of this property, large bodies of water act as buffers against extreme fluctuations in the climate, water makes as an excellent industrial coolant, and it helps protect living organisms against sudden temperature changes in the environment.
  3. Water has a very high heat of vaporization. Water evaporation helps distribute heat globally; it provides an organism with the means to dissipate unwanted heat.
  4. Water is a good solvent and provides a good medium for chemical reactions, including those that are biologically important. Water carries nutrients to an organism's cells and flushes away waste products, and it allows the flow of ions necessary for muscle and nerve functions in animals.
  5. Liquid water has a very high surface tension , the force holding the liquid surface together. This, along with its ability to adhere to surfaces, enables the upward transport of water in plants and soil by capillary action.
  6. Solid water (ice) has a lower density than liquid water at the surface of the earth. If ice were denser than liquid water, it would sink rather than float, and bodies of water in cold climates would eventually freeze solid, killing the organisms living in them.

Freshwater comprises only about three percent of the earth's total water supply and is found as either surface water or groundwater. Surface water starts as precipitation. That portion of precipitation which does not infiltrate the ground is called runoff . Runoff flows into streams and lakes.

The drainage basin from which water drains is called a watershed . Precipitation that infiltrates the ground and becomes trapped in cracks and pores of the soil and rock is called groundwater . If groundwater is stopped by an impermeable barrier of rock, it can accumulate until the porous region becomes saturated. The top of this accumulation is known as the water table . Porous layers of sand and rock through which groundwater flows are called aquifers .

Most freshwater is locked up in frozen glaciers or deep groundwater where it is not useable by most living organisms. Only a tiny fraction of the earth's total water supply is therefore usable freshwater. Still, the amount available is sufficient to maintain life because of the natural water cycle. In the water cycle, water constantly accumulates, becomes purified, and is redistributed. Unfortunately, as human populations across the globe increase, their activities threaten to overwhelm the natural cycle and degrade the quality of available water.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Ap environmental science. OpenStax CNX. Sep 25, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10548/1.2
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