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Another science-related foreign policy initiative of the Kennedy administration in India survived, however. The United States accepted the Indian invitation to “adopt” one of five new Indian Institutes of Technology, and the U.S. adopted IIT/Kanpur. Under contract with USAID, the United States assembled a consortium of American universities led by MIT to send scientific experts to IIT/Kanpur, which would develop into one of the premier institutes of higher education in India. The American effort in India was part of a broader program focused on developing countries as a means of countering Soviet influence in the Third World.

Congressional initiatives

Both houses of Congress took steps in reaction to Sputnik to improve their oversight of executive-branch science policy, particularly with respect to space. In July 1958, the Senate established a Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences, and the House of Representatives established a Committee on Science and Astronautics. (In 1973, the latter committee would be renamed the Committee on Science and Technology.) Possibly because of its broader substantive scope, the House committee proved to be the more effective over the years in helping to shape national science policy. U.S. House of Representatives, Towards the Endless Frontier: History of the Committee on Science and Technology, 1959-79 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1980).

The post-Sputnik surge of public interest and concern about science led to another abortive attempt to establish a unitary, institutional federal base for the development and implementation of American policy. Senator Hubert H. Humphrey (D-MN) introduced legislation to establish a cabinet-level Department of Science and Technology that would have included the NSF, AEC, NASA, and the National Bureau of Standards. Humphrey’s legislation failed in large measure because of opposition by the scientific establishment.

Following the creation of the Office of Science and Technology, Congress gained a measure of access to the presidential science advisory system. Although relations between the science advisor, OST, and the corresponding congressional oversight committees remained cordial throughout the remainder of the Kennedy administration, Congress—particularly the House of Representatives—continued to assert its own independent perspective. A series of hearings beginning in October 1963, organized by the Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Development of the House Committee on Science and Astronautics under the chairmanship of Emilio Q. Daddario (D-CT), sought to “identify problems in the Government-science relationship and to assign priorities for dealing with them.” U.S. Congress, House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Development, Towards a Science Policy for the United States . Committee Report, 91 st Congress, 2 nd Session, October 1970. Their principal lasting result was to establish the House Committee on Science and Astronautics, and particularly its Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Development, as an effective participant in the development of U.S science policy. In 1965, the subcommittee began a series of hearings focused on the NSF, which led to the first substantive amendments in 1968 to the NSF Act of 1950. The most significant outcomes of these hearings explicitly included the social sciences among disciplines qualifying for NSF support, and gave the NSF authority to support applied as well as basic research.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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