<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

In 1947, the Steelman report had asserted the need “to assist in the reconstruction of European laboratories as a part of our program of aid to peace-loving countries.” John R. Steelman, “A Program for the Nation,” Volume 1 of Science and Public Policy: A Report to the President Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, August 27, 1947), 31. It also recommended that science counselors be appointed to key American embassies abroad. Thus, by implication, it asserted that international relations should be an integral component of a science policy based on science for the public good.

In the early 1950s, a working group organized under the non-governmental International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) began planning for the International Geophysical Year. In the United States, the National Science Foundation became the principal supporter of U.S. involvement in the IGY. Until 1957, NSF’s budgets for research and education had been approximately equal. Beginning with the two-year special appropriation the agency received for the IGY, its research budget exceeded its education budget for the first time. The special IGY appropriations were regarded as a temporary funding spike. However, because of the national consternation occasioned by Sputnik, NSF’s budget for fiscal year 1959 was 250 percent greater than it had been two years earlier. NSF had finally asserted itself as one of the principal supporters of basic research in the United States.

Early in the Kennedy administration, U.S. Ambassador to Japan Edwin Reischauer suggested that Kennedy negotiate with Japanese Prime Minister Tanaka to establish three bi-national committees: one on economic affairs, one on cultural affairs, and one on science and technology. With the establishment of the last, the NSF and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science were named implementing agencies for the two countries. To that end, the NSF established an office in the American Embassy in Tokyo, which facilitated visits of American scientists to the country for short-term workshops to explore areas of mutually beneficial cooperative research projects. Although development of such projects was slow at first, it soon accelerated as the benefits of collaboration became increasingly evident.

Following the shock of Sputnik and the related widespread conviction that something was seriously lacking in American education, the 1958 National Defense Education Act authorized the NSF to develop programs to improve science education first at the secondary school and later at the undergraduate level. Among the projects initiated by NSF were six-week summer institutes for high school and college teachers held on university campuses. During the early 1960s, India decided to try similar institutes, and asked the U.S. Government to send qualified scientific educators to serve as consultants. In 1964-65, these programs were implemented by university educators under contract with the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). In 1966, USAID requested that NSF take over the program. By 1970, the program had spawned longer-term projects, such as curriculum development, and numerous American scientists and engineers were developing collaborative research projects with their Indian counterparts. The author served as US consultant to a summer institute for college teachers at Sagar University in 1967 and was the resident physicist on the staff of the Liaison Group for Science Education attached to the American Embassy in Delhi from July 1969 to August 1971. This effort would end in 1971, when India shut the program down following the Indo-Pakistan War and the Nixon administration’s open tilt toward Pakistan.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present' conversation and receive update notifications?