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In 1947, the Steelman report had asserted the need “to assist in the reconstruction of European laboratories as a part of our program of aid to peace-loving countries.” John R. Steelman, “A Program for the Nation,” Volume 1 of Science and Public Policy: A Report to the President Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, August 27, 1947), 31. It also recommended that science counselors be appointed to key American embassies abroad. Thus, by implication, it asserted that international relations should be an integral component of a science policy based on science for the public good.

In the early 1950s, a working group organized under the non-governmental International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) began planning for the International Geophysical Year. In the United States, the National Science Foundation became the principal supporter of U.S. involvement in the IGY. Until 1957, NSF’s budgets for research and education had been approximately equal. Beginning with the two-year special appropriation the agency received for the IGY, its research budget exceeded its education budget for the first time. The special IGY appropriations were regarded as a temporary funding spike. However, because of the national consternation occasioned by Sputnik, NSF’s budget for fiscal year 1959 was 250 percent greater than it had been two years earlier. NSF had finally asserted itself as one of the principal supporters of basic research in the United States.

Early in the Kennedy administration, U.S. Ambassador to Japan Edwin Reischauer suggested that Kennedy negotiate with Japanese Prime Minister Tanaka to establish three bi-national committees: one on economic affairs, one on cultural affairs, and one on science and technology. With the establishment of the last, the NSF and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science were named implementing agencies for the two countries. To that end, the NSF established an office in the American Embassy in Tokyo, which facilitated visits of American scientists to the country for short-term workshops to explore areas of mutually beneficial cooperative research projects. Although development of such projects was slow at first, it soon accelerated as the benefits of collaboration became increasingly evident.

Following the shock of Sputnik and the related widespread conviction that something was seriously lacking in American education, the 1958 National Defense Education Act authorized the NSF to develop programs to improve science education first at the secondary school and later at the undergraduate level. Among the projects initiated by NSF were six-week summer institutes for high school and college teachers held on university campuses. During the early 1960s, India decided to try similar institutes, and asked the U.S. Government to send qualified scientific educators to serve as consultants. In 1964-65, these programs were implemented by university educators under contract with the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). In 1966, USAID requested that NSF take over the program. By 1970, the program had spawned longer-term projects, such as curriculum development, and numerous American scientists and engineers were developing collaborative research projects with their Indian counterparts. The author served as US consultant to a summer institute for college teachers at Sagar University in 1967 and was the resident physicist on the staff of the Liaison Group for Science Education attached to the American Embassy in Delhi from July 1969 to August 1971. This effort would end in 1971, when India shut the program down following the Indo-Pakistan War and the Nixon administration’s open tilt toward Pakistan.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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