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Significance of the presidential science advisory system

Because frequent changes in control of the White House and Congress bring just-as-frequent changes in national priorities, making it all but impossible to develop a consistent science policy, federal institutional arrangements are all-important in helping determine the most significant national issues and coordinating priorities on the president’s agenda. Before SAC/ODM, BoB had carried out these functions by default (and reluctantly) through the annual budget process. But SAC/ODM had little direct access to the president except during occasional crises, as when Eisenhower turned to it for advice on defense against intercontinental ballistic missiles. The creation of PSAC and the appointment of a full-time science advisor put the requisite institutional mechanism in place at the highest levels of government.

Science and international relations

Two public reports prepared by PSAC during the Kennedy Administration— Research and Development in the New Development Assistance Program and Science and Technology in the Department of State —demonstrate the president’s interest in, and PSAC’s growing awareness of, the international ramifications of U.S. science policy. International relations, to which the Vannevar Bush report had paid scant attention, had been increasing in importance for several years. The Bowman Committee Report (chaired by Isaiah Bowman, president of Johns Hopkins University), one of the four committee reports that Bush appended to Science—the Endless Frontier , had devoted only two out of one hundred twenty-two pages to International Scientific Cooperation. Vannevar Bush, Science—the Endless Frontier (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1945), 113-14. Its internationally-oriented recommendations, intended to contribute to science for the public good, were: that the U.S. government provide adequate support for international scientific expeditions, as was to happen in the 1956-57 International Geophysical Year, which brought a substantial temporary increase in the National Science Foundation budget; that the U.S. government should provide support for American attendance at international scientific conferences, primarily those organized under the auspices of the International Council of Scientific Unions; that fellowships be offered for American scientists to study abroad and a selected number of European scientists to study in the United States; and that the Department of State post scientists abroad to a selected number of American embassies.

A science counselors program along the lines suggested by the Bowman Committee report was implemented within two years. The State Department also appointed a scientific adviser, whom William T. Golden visited during his October 1950-April 1951 interviews commissioned by the Bureau of the Budget. William A. Blanpied, ed., Impact of the Early Cold War on the Formulation of U.S. Science Policy (Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1995). Golden reported that this scientist felt isolated—a complaint that was to be voiced repeatedly by subsequent scientific advisers to the State Department.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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