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Significance of the presidential science advisory system

Because frequent changes in control of the White House and Congress bring just-as-frequent changes in national priorities, making it all but impossible to develop a consistent science policy, federal institutional arrangements are all-important in helping determine the most significant national issues and coordinating priorities on the president’s agenda. Before SAC/ODM, BoB had carried out these functions by default (and reluctantly) through the annual budget process. But SAC/ODM had little direct access to the president except during occasional crises, as when Eisenhower turned to it for advice on defense against intercontinental ballistic missiles. The creation of PSAC and the appointment of a full-time science advisor put the requisite institutional mechanism in place at the highest levels of government.

Science and international relations

Two public reports prepared by PSAC during the Kennedy Administration— Research and Development in the New Development Assistance Program and Science and Technology in the Department of State —demonstrate the president’s interest in, and PSAC’s growing awareness of, the international ramifications of U.S. science policy. International relations, to which the Vannevar Bush report had paid scant attention, had been increasing in importance for several years. The Bowman Committee Report (chaired by Isaiah Bowman, president of Johns Hopkins University), one of the four committee reports that Bush appended to Science—the Endless Frontier , had devoted only two out of one hundred twenty-two pages to International Scientific Cooperation. Vannevar Bush, Science—the Endless Frontier (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1945), 113-14. Its internationally-oriented recommendations, intended to contribute to science for the public good, were: that the U.S. government provide adequate support for international scientific expeditions, as was to happen in the 1956-57 International Geophysical Year, which brought a substantial temporary increase in the National Science Foundation budget; that the U.S. government should provide support for American attendance at international scientific conferences, primarily those organized under the auspices of the International Council of Scientific Unions; that fellowships be offered for American scientists to study abroad and a selected number of European scientists to study in the United States; and that the Department of State post scientists abroad to a selected number of American embassies.

A science counselors program along the lines suggested by the Bowman Committee report was implemented within two years. The State Department also appointed a scientific adviser, whom William T. Golden visited during his October 1950-April 1951 interviews commissioned by the Bureau of the Budget. William A. Blanpied, ed., Impact of the Early Cold War on the Formulation of U.S. Science Policy (Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1995). Golden reported that this scientist felt isolated—a complaint that was to be voiced repeatedly by subsequent scientific advisers to the State Department.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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