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In view of the continuity of PSAC’s membership and the fact that Wiesner had been a member of the Cambridge academic circle encouraging Kennedy’s presidential ambitions, it is not surprising that the presidential advisory system continued to function effectively. The organization and agenda of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, established by Act of Congress in September 1961, was largely set by Eisenhower administration PSAC reviews. Glenn T. Seaborg, a Nobel Laureate chemist from the University of California, Berkeley, and an Eisenhower-era PSAC member, was appointed chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission in February 1961. He and Wiesner, with strong PSAC support, played essential roles in the events leading to the 1963 Nuclear Test Ban treaty.

President Kennedy’s confidence in PSAC is evidenced by its tremendous productivity. The committee was a virtual report machine. Two early assignments resulted in reports entitled Research and Development in the New Development Assistance Program (May 24, 1961) and the Report of the Ad-Hoc Panel on Environmental Health (June 6, 1961). PSAC also maintained interest in science education and manpower ( Meeting Manpower Needs in Science and Technology , December 12, 1962) and the special requirements of specific academic disciplines ( Strengthening the Behavioral Sciences , April 20, 1962). PSAC also took on policy issues impinging on the direct interests of powerful non-defense federal departments with its reports on Science and Agriculture (January 29, 1962), and Science and Technology in the Department of State (February 27, 1962). Those two reports are evidence of a decided shift in operating philosophy, mirroring the style of Kennedy, who wanted his staff to be far more openly involved in the affairs of cabinet departments and agencies than did Eisenhower. Wells, op. cit . Whereas both of Eisenhower’s special assistants (Killian and Kistiakowsky) viewed their mandate strictly in terms of offering advice to the president and his senior advisers on issues with which he was directly and immediately concerned, Wiesner sought to oversee and to some extent coordinate the activities of the entire federal science and technology system. He assumed several functions (among many others) that the BoB had long been trying to force on a reluctant National Science Board.

In September 1962, at the strong recommendation of Senator Henry Jackson (D-WA), Wiesner’s staff was reorganized as the Office of Science and Technology (OST) and transferred from the White House to the Executive Office of the President (EoP), partly on the grounds that that move would institutionalize the presidential advisory system and partly on the grounds that the staff had become too large to fit easily into the White House organization itself. The establishment of the OST within the EoP made the science advisor accountable not only to the president but also to congress, since the director of OST required Senate confirmation and the activities and budgets of all EoP units were subject to congressional oversight; one reason for establishing OST was to quell congressional resentment about its denial of access to the presidential science advisory system. Ibid., 204 Wiesner’s access to the president was further reduced after the appointment of McGeorge Bundy as Director of the National Security Council. Although relations between the president and his science advisor remained cordial, his national security advice and participation was sought less frequently—a circumstance that also restricted his ability to bring other science- and technology-related issues to the president’s attention.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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