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During the Eisenhower and Kennedy years, PSAC made its most substantial impact in national defense. Among eight major PSAC actions singled out by Beckler, six are unambiguously defense-related. Beckler, op. cit . Beckler’s non-defense items are the creation of NASA and the establishment, in March 1959, of the intergovernmental Federal Council for Science and Technology (FCST). One study led to the Defense Reorganization Act of 1958, which authorized the position of Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Development; a parallel recommendation engendered the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The remaining five were: major improvements in the long-range ballistic missile program; the acceleration of ballistic missile early-warning capabilities; major advances in technical capabilities for antisubmarine warfare and photographic intelligence-gathering; recommendations that led directly to the establishment of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency early in the Kennedy Administration; and assessment of the desirability and technical feasibility of a nuclear test ban, which led to the successful consummation of the atmospheric test ban treaty during the Kennedy Administration.

The preponderance of national security issues on PSAC’s agenda clearly illustrates the overriding importance of national defense to the conceptualization of science policy in the Eisenhower administration, and to a somewhat lesser extent in the Kennedy administration. The memoirs of General Robert Cutler, who headed the National Security Council and actively assisted PSAC in maintaining its ready access to the president, recall his many productive interactions with the committee. Robert Cutler, No Time for Rest (Boston: Little Brown, 1966).

PSAC (or, at any rate, Killian and his successors George Kistiakowsky and Jerome Wiesner) seems to have understood that its privileged position was a function of the expectation that it could make substantial contributions to national defense. However, PSAC and the science advisors also made effective use of their access to the president to broaden the national science policy agenda. Although several PSAC reports called for support for basic research at universities and national laboratories, science for national defense was still the committee’s principal raison d’être . Its access to the president on matters of national defense helped PSAC convince him to support a more broadly defined science policy.

The kennedy years

PSAC exerted similar influence during the Kennedy Administration. Kistiakowsky resigned as Special Assistant for Science and Technology but retained his PSAC membership. He was succeeded by MIT electrical engineer Jerome Wiesner, a charter member of PSAC. Among the members who had served for at least a year under Eisenhower, twelve remained on the committee, and one former member was immediately reappointed by Kennedy, who appointed five new members, bringing the total membership to eighteen. The five new members were: Paul M. Doty, Harvard University (biochemistry); Edwin R. Gilliland, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (chemical engineering); Franklin A. Long, Cornell University (physical chemistry); Colin M. MacLeod, New York University (Microbiology); and Frank Press, California Institute of Technology (geophysics). Additionally, four members were appointed by President Eisenhower in 1960 to replace four whose terms had expired: Harvey Brooks, Harvard University (physics); Donald F. Hornig, Princeton University (chemistry); Alvin M. Weinberg, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (nuclear physics); and Walter H. Zinn, Combustion Engineering, Inc. (physics). Golden, op. cit . Princeton now boasted two members and Columbia and Rockefeller universities none. Eleven members came from Eastern universities and three from California universities (Stanford, the California Institute of Technology, and the University of California, Berkeley). One came from a Midwestern university (John Bardeen of the University of Illinois), one from a national laboratory (Alvin Weinberg of Oakridge), and two from industry (Emanuel Piore of IBM and Walter Zinn of Combustion Engineering, Inc.). In June 1961, there were seven physicists, two physical chemists, one biophysicist, one geophysicist, two chemists, one biochemist, one microbiologist, two engineers (including Wiesner), and one mathematician.

Questions & Answers

what types of sleep disorders
ara Reply
Hello everybody! I am Ann from Russia. I would like to discuss this and text topic to improve my knowledge in psychology and my English.
Anna Reply
hello, I'm Olamide from Nigeria.
la
Hello:)
Anna
Are you psychologist or student or somebody else?)
Anna
something else
Yato
здравствуйте Анна! меня зовут Joshua, what would you like to know?As someone who's lived in South Africa,UK, and Australia I have a хорошо understanding of English :)
Universally
Oh
Abba
hi
Precious
Hello again
Anna
hello :) I'm Yasmine and I'm from Tunisia. i have a bachelor's degree in psychology
Yasmine
This app unfortunately work slow(
Anna
wow, I'm from tunisia too but I'm still a student
Faten
what is the phsicology behind female players? i know that male players don't have a close relationship with their feather, so they observe closer their mother, understanding better what females want, having ease with them, but i cant think of the circumstances a woman has to have to become a player
Yato
Faten that's really cool! where do you study? FSHST?
Yasmine
no, in ISSHT
Faten
it's near FSHST you know right?
Faten
Tunisia, I was there
Anna
Which field of psychology is popular in Tunisia?
Anna
@psychologist_bia
Anna
you can write me
Anna
if you want :)
Anna
For me more interesting -psychology of development
Anna
and what about you, guys?
Anna
@faten yes! i studied in FSHST :) but i still haven't finished my master's. it's in my long term plans
Yasmine
amazing Yasmine so you have a license?
Faten
Yes Faten, i graduated a year ago! what about you?
Yasmine
it's my first year so I'm still a beginner hhhhhh
Faten
congratulations btw
Faten
it's my first year so I'm still a beginner hhhhhhh
Faten
You all are psychology students?
Hamna
@yasmine yes I am actually enjoying it. it's super interesting!
Faten
oooo
Precious
i'm currently finishing my 2nd year of my degree :')
Precious
I'm just in high school :3
Hamna
cool! you're planning to take psyc as ur major?
Precious
I don't know yet. I'm just interested in it for now.
Hamna
nice! it certainly is very interesting :')
Precious
:) do u plan on being a psychologist?
Hamna
Hello guys, this is student from highschool. If anyone does live in America, have you guys ever took AP Psychology? I want to find some students or teachers who took this class.
Oh, sorry for inconvenience. I putted in the wrong chat. Sorry!
Hello everyone, I'm nyakuiy from the youngest African country which is south Sudan I'm just from hight school but as I will be entering university later this year my first choice is psychology
Nyakuei
Anna, what exact exploration expecting.. raise doubts and get the answers in psychology.
dcs
mr.king, if want to join or get the pdf, you must complete phd.
dcs
oh, I see but first I'm taking Rpm.
King
hi, i'm Adams from nigeria i likt to be part of this improvement
Adamu
hello Adams, I'm also from Nigeria studying psychology
la
Mr. Nyakuei, all the best for entering in psychology.
dcs
good choice that is...
dcs
@Mr.King, do check ur mail inbox
Smitha
Hello everybody, I'm sabah from Algeria. I'm psychologist and student in the same time.
Sabah
hello
Jwala
what is mood
Abdi Reply
mood is an affective state. In contrast to emotions or feelings, moods are less specific, less intense and less likely to be provoked or instantiated by a particular stimulus or event
la
Why some woman are looking up and down why you approach her?
Ridwan Reply
I don't know
GOPAL
It could be a sign of either lack of interest or maybe they are nervous.
Rachna
if a girl don't look directly in your eyes while talking then it is 80 percent sure that she has crush on you
Sanket
or she is scared. fear creates an avoidant-type relationship. as does embarrassment. when a woman is so bold to look you in the eye, or other visual signs of her attention, she is performing a feminine courtship
but all this is also confirmed or denied by cultural background. in some countries women would be frowned on for approaching the man in any form. some societies hold women in highest regard, and thus their judgment is considered an honor.
not looking in the eye, is a sign if a female going through the development of a crush on the person OR that her past experiences and trauma compels her to avoid eye-contact. usually females do act nervous around the men they like but once there is an establishment of comfortness and trust
Tiasha
using myself as an example: if im interested, you will know it by my focus, my curiosity, my desire to know more. much like an interrogation i suppose. every question would ripple through you demanding an answer. then progressing onward. if im not interested, i would find some way out
looking into the eyes is just a matter of time
Tiasha
It is some sort of inhibition and/or trait of famininity.
dcs
if the woman is not interested in you in any way, that is when best she'll look up straight to your eyeballs, but if a woman is actually looking up and down while you ask her out or on a date, believe me, she never believed you in person can ask her out, maybe she feels you are too big to ask her ou
Olaleye
and if you are dressed in a way that is different to the onlooker, of course they are going to examine you. First to discover the apparent trend you are wearing, second to determine if you are foreign or mentally compromised. wink at them and blow a kiss next time. you may get a smile or rejection
if a woman does this to the man she is already dating, it relates to socioeconomical status concerns. "does my man look the part?" "will he make me look foolish among my peers?"
or simply "is he wearing the shoes i recommended?"
its not only happened to women, mens also perceive. mostly shy people feels this often. when shy people makes conversation with opposite genders, the main thinking of their is mostly there deal with opposite gender, its leads to shy and discomfort and makes them avoided straight look
gokul
the eyes are considered soul-bearing. to stay disconnected from sharing that part of yourself says many things, usually fear or discomfort. perhaps inferiority complex. or simply shyness as mentioned by gokul
May be she is Practical Minded. Gold Digger ? Because those type people Frequently look Top to Bottom to Analyse a Persons worth. The Best way to Judge is 1) She Holds an iPhone (just to look Posh) 2) She has a Cringy Behavior While Talking. (doesn't have a cultured attitude)
Mushtaque
if those two parameters match in any Girl. Then Money Speaks to her. Money in sense any form (Gift's / Phone's / Jewellery etc) Check Wisely and Approach Anyone Buddy. Take Care.
Mushtaque
very good Mushtaque. Her arrogant behavior or desire for flashy and valuable items would be signs of this. How would you handle this type of person if you were caught on conversation?
Being a Psychologist, I would look at her as a Subject and Have Conversation and know better about her and her intentions and why and what made her become like that. Hopefully not a One Day Task. In General as a Human, I would just Ignore.
Mushtaque
Mushtaque don't you think a psychologist is not supposed to judge a person? As far as I can see from your above messages you have already come to a conclusion that these are going to be her intentions. As a psychologist, should not you know that humans are complex and every individual differs?
Alisha
In this way you're Judging Psychologist's that they Cant Judge. hmmm. well, ofcourse they are Complex , but Traits are identifiable.
Mushtaque
a part of psychology is on human behavior which as well all know is variable. so, being a psychologist do you think an individual can be confined to first impressions?
Alisha
being psychologist is about being open minded and looking not judging as no individual is the same plus it's about digging deeper into the reasons behind the actions of certain individuals
Rhian
could not be put into better words, rhian.
Alisha
Agree with you Thomas.
Mushtaque
hi 👋
kim
Application Error, Shown Rhian name as Rhian Thomas. previous comment was for Rhian.
Mushtaque
I need help please
kim
Hi Kim Liza. May I know What Kind of Help you are seeking ?
Mushtaque
I have a talk in humanistic psychology I don't know what to do
kim
i seems not to understand your question please, can you enlighten us on it so as to contribute or proffer solution to it
Olaleye
you have to make a presentation that talks about humanistic psychology
kim
I made an introduction
kim
can u help me
kim
Humanistic Psychology: It is a psychological perspective that emphasizes the study of the whole person. Humanistic psychologists look at human behavior not only through the eyes of the observer, but through the eyes of the person doing the behaving.
Olaleye
Proponents of Humanistic Psychology Abraham Maslow Co-Founder of Humanistic Psychology with Carl Rogers Believed we are all biologically driven to achieve self- actualization Came up with Hierarchy of Needs theory that is most important humanistic theory.
Olaleye
thank you so much
kim
Proponents of Humanistic Psychology Abraham Maslow  Co-Founder of Humanistic Psychology with Carl Rogers  Believed we are all biologically driven to achieve self- actualization  Came up with Hierarchy of Needs theory that is most important humanistic theory.
Olaleye
Maslow is known for his Hierarchy of Needs • Maslow proposed 5 levels of need: from basic to more advanced, they are: – Physiological (food, water, sex) – Safety (security, order, stability – Belongingness and love – Esteem (from self and others) – Self-actualization • The more bas
Olaleye
According to Carl Rogers • Important issues must be defined by the individual: importance of an autonomous self: self-insight is what predicts later behavior. • Actualizing tendency: people tend to develop in a positive direction, toward self-actualization
Olaleye
• The way we perceive our environment determines how it affects us. (Roger's theory emphasizes phenomenology) • Incongruence between our self-concept and our experience leads to pathology
Olaleye
In Rogerian therapy, the client • Moves from talking about externals to talking about personal issues • Moves from talking about the past to dealing with the present • Becomes closer to and more comfortable with his/her feelings
Olaleye
• Becomes more open to new experiences, experiences more freedom
Olaleye
The Fully Functioning Person, for Rogers • Is aware of all experiences • Lives in the moment • Trusts in his/her self • Experiences freedom in choices • Is creative and adapts well • Is still growing and experiencing difficulties
Olaleye
i hope you will find this helpful
Olaleye
yeaaa thank you so much
kim
hey Guy's
Joseph
what's the difference between hallucinations and being crazy?
Joseph
they are both abnormalities
Olaleye
false perception in the absence of stimulus is hallucination.
dcs
crazy is a regular word using in daily life, which is passoinated towards objects or creatures.
dcs
Is/did anyone study/ing forensic psychology
AUDREIGH
please explain acquisition of skills
oshin
thanks everyone
Gimba
Acquisition Skill is the stage during which a new response is learned and gradually strengthened. For instance, Hitting moving objects, Horse riding, car driving etc,.
dcs
start a new thread for acquisition of skills
sumitra
what is the last stage of experimental method
sawera Reply
the thing which are used to verify hypotheses in experimental method it is called
sawera
Hi.. I'm unable to open the chat.. how do I do that.. please help!
sumitra Reply
español traducir en español ya
Rafael Reply
I'm sure if you went to settings you would be able to change the language.
Demi
안 데여. 한번도 못 찾았어요.
Lex
그런데 여기서 미국 사람들이 우리가 영화 쓰는 거는 그렇게 시킨 거야.
Lex
내가 뭐 물어 볼까 봐 그냥 이거 뭐라고
Lex
it's not speaking nonsense cuz you know it is basically nonsense the machine doesn't really hear what I'm saying cuz I can speak English as well. easier to take direction when you say Jolly Good, Tally Ho. God save the Queen for me.Pro Deo et Patriae And other snazzy cliches.Irrumatus Manducare US
Lex
anglo wasp POS
Lex
cave dwelling trogledite.
Lex
forgive my spelling.
Lex
what r u doing
ANGELICA
what's actually going on here?
Demi
ok
ANGELICA
take it easy
King
are you guys studying or working
King
I'm studying, what are you?
Demi
im studying
ANGELICA
are you enjoying it angelica?
Demi
this year, I'm going to take Rpm
King
hoping to pass the exam
King
studying what?
King
I'm studying clinical. good luck with your exams!
Demi
Thanks Demi.
King
hi
Sharavana
hello., how are you
King
I wonder why this app don't have information about statistics
King
that's a very good point. I've found the app very helpful for my introduction into my new career path so I'm more than great full
Demi
I hope to find app like yours
King
this subject I need to review: Psychological Assessment, Theories of Personality, Abnormal Psychology and Industrial Psychology.., I need to refresh my mind even though I'm a fresh Graduate of Bs Psychology.
King
food in classical condition is called
dude Reply
dream anylisis is method of
dude
dream anylisis is method of
dude
psychoanalysis
Kaiser
food is unconditioned stimulus
gokul
it's a necessity
Anthony
its unconditional stimulus
Puja
Unconditional Stimulus
dcs
conditioned stimulus
Laura
classical conditioning
JADE
advantages of ECG in biopsychology
Sheeba Reply
can I get the information about the advantages of ECG in biopsychology
Sheeba
what do you call that moment right before the "emotion (s)" take place? that blink of an eye flash because that is how I I experience being a person with schizophrenia...?
Stepphun Reply
at childhood, focus is upon what?
Oliver Reply
It shld be on their developmental stages!! Oliver. From cognitive to kinesthetic, intrapersonal to interpersonal, fine motor to gross motor, n strong reasoning skills etc.
Smitha
Check the works of Jean Piaget n Erick Erickson's stages of developments, will be helpful.
Smitha
Child develops in all the biopsychosocial ways, and all the developments at that time are crucial. From biological perspective, neural development and sensory and motor abilities psychological perspective: various cognitive processes develop Social aspect focus on development of various relations.
Pranav
define knowledge and compare it with learning
lidsay Reply
Is learning a cognitive behaviour?
sumitra Reply
Its the ability to act instinctly
lidsay
is there motivation in cognitive thinking and behaviour?
Stepphun Reply
what is fear appeal
Takdees Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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