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During the Eisenhower and Kennedy years, PSAC made its most substantial impact in national defense. Among eight major PSAC actions singled out by Beckler, six are unambiguously defense-related. Beckler, op. cit . Beckler’s non-defense items are the creation of NASA and the establishment, in March 1959, of the intergovernmental Federal Council for Science and Technology (FCST). One study led to the Defense Reorganization Act of 1958, which authorized the position of Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Development; a parallel recommendation engendered the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The remaining five were: major improvements in the long-range ballistic missile program; the acceleration of ballistic missile early-warning capabilities; major advances in technical capabilities for antisubmarine warfare and photographic intelligence-gathering; recommendations that led directly to the establishment of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency early in the Kennedy Administration; and assessment of the desirability and technical feasibility of a nuclear test ban, which led to the successful consummation of the atmospheric test ban treaty during the Kennedy Administration.

The preponderance of national security issues on PSAC’s agenda clearly illustrates the overriding importance of national defense to the conceptualization of science policy in the Eisenhower administration, and to a somewhat lesser extent in the Kennedy administration. The memoirs of General Robert Cutler, who headed the National Security Council and actively assisted PSAC in maintaining its ready access to the president, recall his many productive interactions with the committee. Robert Cutler, No Time for Rest (Boston: Little Brown, 1966).

PSAC (or, at any rate, Killian and his successors George Kistiakowsky and Jerome Wiesner) seems to have understood that its privileged position was a function of the expectation that it could make substantial contributions to national defense. However, PSAC and the science advisors also made effective use of their access to the president to broaden the national science policy agenda. Although several PSAC reports called for support for basic research at universities and national laboratories, science for national defense was still the committee’s principal raison d’être . Its access to the president on matters of national defense helped PSAC convince him to support a more broadly defined science policy.

The kennedy years

PSAC exerted similar influence during the Kennedy Administration. Kistiakowsky resigned as Special Assistant for Science and Technology but retained his PSAC membership. He was succeeded by MIT electrical engineer Jerome Wiesner, a charter member of PSAC. Among the members who had served for at least a year under Eisenhower, twelve remained on the committee, and one former member was immediately reappointed by Kennedy, who appointed five new members, bringing the total membership to eighteen. The five new members were: Paul M. Doty, Harvard University (biochemistry); Edwin R. Gilliland, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (chemical engineering); Franklin A. Long, Cornell University (physical chemistry); Colin M. MacLeod, New York University (Microbiology); and Frank Press, California Institute of Technology (geophysics). Additionally, four members were appointed by President Eisenhower in 1960 to replace four whose terms had expired: Harvey Brooks, Harvard University (physics); Donald F. Hornig, Princeton University (chemistry); Alvin M. Weinberg, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (nuclear physics); and Walter H. Zinn, Combustion Engineering, Inc. (physics). Golden, op. cit . Princeton now boasted two members and Columbia and Rockefeller universities none. Eleven members came from Eastern universities and three from California universities (Stanford, the California Institute of Technology, and the University of California, Berkeley). One came from a Midwestern university (John Bardeen of the University of Illinois), one from a national laboratory (Alvin Weinberg of Oakridge), and two from industry (Emanuel Piore of IBM and Walter Zinn of Combustion Engineering, Inc.). In June 1961, there were seven physicists, two physical chemists, one biophysicist, one geophysicist, two chemists, one biochemist, one microbiologist, two engineers (including Wiesner), and one mathematician.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
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Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
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what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
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Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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