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Accomplishments during the eisenhower administration

The expansion of the institutional base for space science and technology was one of PSAC’s two major achievements during the Eisenhower administration. In July 1958, Congress enacted the National Aeronautics Act of 1958—essentially an Eisenhower administration bill based on PSAC’s recommendations—which created NASA and a nine-member Space Council under the chairmanship of the president. The Act’s most significant policy departure established civilian control over an area with clear defense implications, somewhat along the lines of the Atomic Energy Act of 1946. NASA was given explicit authority and resources to enter into contracts and award grants to non-government investigators, including investigators in both industry and universities. Prior to and after World War II, NACA did award a few contracts, but these were considered exceptional.

The second immediate response to Sputnik was the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) of September 1958, which constituted the most sweeping legislation for direct federal aid to education since the Morrill Act of 1862 had established the national land grant college system. A. Hunter Dupree, Science in the Federal Government (Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University, 1957), 169, 170. NDEA provisions included aid to elementary and secondary school instruction in mathematics, science, and foreign language; student loans; and graduate fellowships in science and engineering. Responsibility for administering the act was assigned primarily to the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. It also provided a basis for expanding several National Science Foundation education programs, which had been initiated on a relatively modest scale as early as 1954. By the end of the 1950s, science education had become recognized as a legitimate though uncertain component of the U.S. science policy system, with the NSF’s science education budget steadily growing.

In both the Eisenhower and Kennedy administrations, PSAC pressed the case for federal responsibility for science education. Its May 24, 1959, report, Education in an Age of Science , extended the argument of Science—the Endless Frontier for federal scholarships and fellowships in science by making a case for federal involvement at all educational levels. Scientific Progress, the Universities, and the Federal Government (the Seaborg report), released on November 15, 1960, argued that since the federal government had a legitimate role in the support of basic research in universities, it should provide institutional support to research universities in addition to project contract and grant support to individual university investigators. A similar argument made by the Steelman report in 1947 had been largely ignored, possibly because of the scientific establishment’s indifference—and even hostility—to the Steelman board itself. The report led to the creation, five years later, of NSF’s Centers of Excellence program.

Another PSAC study, issued in May 1959, established a not altogether felicitous precedent. Entitled A Proposed Federal Program in Support of High Energy Accelerator Physics , it made an important contribution to policy-for-science by helping to establish set priorities in what was already becoming an expensive field of basic research. However, by arguing for federal support of an exclusively academic sub-specialty, it left itself open to the charge of being, in David Z. Beckler’s words, “an island of academia within the White House”—a charge that would return to haunt PSAC during the Nixon administration.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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