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One month after that—on December 6, 1957—a Vanguard rocket attempting to launch the United States’ first satellite exploded after takeoff. Finally, on January 31, 1958, Explorer I was successfully launched by an Army Jupiter rocket.


Conditions were clearly ripe in post-Sputnik 1957 for the establishment of an effective presidential science advisory system. The Bureau of the Budget, frustrated at the continuing refusal of the National Science Board to coordinate policy as legislated by the National Science Foundation Act and reiterated by Executive Order in 1954, was intent on establishing an alternative mechanism in the White House or the Executive Office of the President. Author interview with Elmer Staats, December 29, 1986 (unpublished). And Eisenhower was predisposed to having an expert, non-governmental body to counterbalance the Pentagon.

PSAC members were appointed for four-year rotating terms. Virtually all charter members had had extensive experience working with the federal government during World War II, and most were well acquainted with one another. The charter members of PSAC were: Robert F. Barker, California Institute of Technology (physics); William D. Baker, Bell Telephone Laboratories (physical chemistry); John Bardeen, University of Illinois (physics); Lloyd W. Berkner, Associated Universities, Inc. (physics); Hans W. Bethe, Cornell University (physics); James H. Doolittle, Shell Oil Co. (aeronautical engineering); James B. Fisk, Bell Telephone Laboratories (physics); Caryl B. Haskins, Carnegie Institution of Washington (genetics, physiology); Charles C. Lauritsen, California Institute of Technology (physics); James R. Killian, Jr., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (administration); George B. Kistiakowsky, Harvard University (physical chemistry); Edwin H. Land, Polaroid Corp. (physics); Edward M. Purcell, Harvard University (physics); Isador I. Rabi, Columbia University (physics); H.P. Robertson, California Institute of Technology (mathematical physics); Jerome B. Wiesner, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (electrical engineering); Herbert York, Livermore Laboratory (physics); and Jerrold R. Zacharias, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (physics); Bacher, Fisk, Haskins, Land, Lauritsen, Rabi, and Zacharias were carryovers from SAC/ODM. David Z. Beckler served as executive secretary to SAC/ODM from the Truman administration and as executive secretary of PSAC until it was abolished by President Richard Nixon in January 1973. William T. Golden, ed., Science Advice to the President (New York: Pergamon Press, 1980), viii-ix. They comprised a remarkably elite, homogeneous group. Among the sixteen members (including Killian), nine came from private Eastern universities (three from MIT, two from Harvard, one each from Cornell, Columbia, and the Rockefeller University); one from the Associated Universities, Inc., a consortium of Eastern universities which that managed the Brookhaven National Laboratory; two from the California Institute of Technology, and one from the University of California, Berkeley. All members of SAC/ODM and PSAC, with their affiliations and terms of service, are given in Golden, ibid., vii-ix. The remaining four came from Bell Laboratories (two), Land Polaroid, and Shell Oil. Ten were physicists, two physical chemists, two engineers, and one a biophysicist.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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