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One month after that—on December 6, 1957—a Vanguard rocket attempting to launch the United States’ first satellite exploded after takeoff. Finally, on January 31, 1958, Explorer I was successfully launched by an Army Jupiter rocket.


Conditions were clearly ripe in post-Sputnik 1957 for the establishment of an effective presidential science advisory system. The Bureau of the Budget, frustrated at the continuing refusal of the National Science Board to coordinate policy as legislated by the National Science Foundation Act and reiterated by Executive Order in 1954, was intent on establishing an alternative mechanism in the White House or the Executive Office of the President. Author interview with Elmer Staats, December 29, 1986 (unpublished). And Eisenhower was predisposed to having an expert, non-governmental body to counterbalance the Pentagon.

PSAC members were appointed for four-year rotating terms. Virtually all charter members had had extensive experience working with the federal government during World War II, and most were well acquainted with one another. The charter members of PSAC were: Robert F. Barker, California Institute of Technology (physics); William D. Baker, Bell Telephone Laboratories (physical chemistry); John Bardeen, University of Illinois (physics); Lloyd W. Berkner, Associated Universities, Inc. (physics); Hans W. Bethe, Cornell University (physics); James H. Doolittle, Shell Oil Co. (aeronautical engineering); James B. Fisk, Bell Telephone Laboratories (physics); Caryl B. Haskins, Carnegie Institution of Washington (genetics, physiology); Charles C. Lauritsen, California Institute of Technology (physics); James R. Killian, Jr., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (administration); George B. Kistiakowsky, Harvard University (physical chemistry); Edwin H. Land, Polaroid Corp. (physics); Edward M. Purcell, Harvard University (physics); Isador I. Rabi, Columbia University (physics); H.P. Robertson, California Institute of Technology (mathematical physics); Jerome B. Wiesner, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (electrical engineering); Herbert York, Livermore Laboratory (physics); and Jerrold R. Zacharias, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (physics); Bacher, Fisk, Haskins, Land, Lauritsen, Rabi, and Zacharias were carryovers from SAC/ODM. David Z. Beckler served as executive secretary to SAC/ODM from the Truman administration and as executive secretary of PSAC until it was abolished by President Richard Nixon in January 1973. William T. Golden, ed., Science Advice to the President (New York: Pergamon Press, 1980), viii-ix. They comprised a remarkably elite, homogeneous group. Among the sixteen members (including Killian), nine came from private Eastern universities (three from MIT, two from Harvard, one each from Cornell, Columbia, and the Rockefeller University); one from the Associated Universities, Inc., a consortium of Eastern universities which that managed the Brookhaven National Laboratory; two from the California Institute of Technology, and one from the University of California, Berkeley. All members of SAC/ODM and PSAC, with their affiliations and terms of service, are given in Golden, ibid., vii-ix. The remaining four came from Bell Laboratories (two), Land Polaroid, and Shell Oil. Ten were physicists, two physical chemists, two engineers, and one a biophysicist.

Questions & Answers

what's economic development and growth
Popoola Reply
what do you understand by Ceteris Paribus?
Gabriel Reply
explain the uses of microeconomics
Nikita Reply
uses of microeconomics
Adam Smith's definition of economics
Sylvia Reply
what is economic deficit
this is a situation whereby a nation's outcome or available resources are not enough to the people thereby causing scarcity
prices of Quality demanded is equal to Quality supplied
it's quantity demand and quantity supplied that's called equilibrium
they deal With prices
define the elasticity
explain different types of elasticity
oops 😬 you are right you talk about quality I tell about quantity
elasticity is the measurement of the percentage change of one economic variable in response to a change in another
Cross Elasticity of Demand (XED) Income Elasticity of Demand (YED) Price Elasticity of Supply (PES)
anything else?
I need to know everything about theory of consumer behavior
How does one analyze a market where both demand and supply shift?
Gabriel Reply
That's equilibrium market
but an equlibrum can appear twice on the same market... both in Movement along the Demand/supply curve of shift in the Curve
I Mean on the same curve..
how can consumer surplus be calculated
How can we analyze the effect on demand or supply if multiple factors are changing at the same time—say price rises and income falls? 
Gabriel Reply
because of fall of income, less will be demanded and much will be supply as a result of price rises. Rise in price always motivate new supplier to enter into the system. But it only possible in the short run
yeah.. I think Ceteris Paribus is applied in this case
that is the law of Demand is Inversely related to the law of Supply... so that mean a positive change in demand may produce a negative return to supply I think.
what are the difference between Wants and Needs
Gabriel Reply
When the price is above the equilibrium, explain how market forces move the market price to equilibrium. Do the same when the price is below the equilibrium.
economic problems
yeah please Explain
I don't know this is my question
no it was a mistake...😂😂 can you explain how Wants and needs differs 😌
wants is what human desire but might not need them, human want are mostly articles of ostentatious while need is what human must get to live e.g inferior goods
what's equilibrium price
equilibrium prices is a situation whereby the price of goods supplied equates to the demand
this whereby the prices of quality demanded is equivalent to quality demanded
wants are numerous desire man that man can do without if not purchased e.g. cosmetic while need are desires that you cannot do without e.g. food
equilibrium price is that level of output were quantity demanded is equal to quantity supplied
what are the importance of studying economics
Bherla Reply
To know if the country is growing or not through the country's GDP
to manage our resources
compare base years GDP and the current years GDP
To tell whether a country is growing there are many factors to be considered not necessarily only the GDP due to weaknesses of GDP approach
What is the law of demand
Yaw Reply
price increase demand decrease...price decrease demand increase
ıf the price increase the demand decrease and if the demand increase the price decrease
all other things being equal, an increase in demand causes a decrease in supply and vice versa
how is the economy of usa now
What is demand
jude Reply
Demand is the quantity of goods and services a consumer is willing and able to purchase at various prices over a given period of time.
Okay congratulations I'll join you guys later .
demand is the quantity and quality of goods and services a consumer is willingly and able to purchase at a particular price over a given period of time.
calculate elasticity of income exercises
If potatoes cost Jane $1 per kilogram and she has $5 that could possibly spend on potatoes or other items. If she feels that the first kilogram of potatoes is worth $1.50, the second kilogram is worth$1.14, the third is worth $1.05 and subsequent kilograms are worth $0.30, how many kilograms of potatoes will she purchase? What if she only had $2 to spend?
Susan Reply
cause of poverty in urban
DAVY Reply
QI: (A) Asume the following cost data are for a purely competitive producer: At a product price Of $56. will this firm produce in the short run? Why Why not? If it is preferable to produce, what will be the profit-maximizing Or loss-minimizing Output? Explain. What economic profit or loss will the
Falak Reply
While the American heart association suggests that meditation might be used in conjunction with more traditional treatments as a way to manage hypertension
Beverly Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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