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One month after that—on December 6, 1957—a Vanguard rocket attempting to launch the United States’ first satellite exploded after takeoff. Finally, on January 31, 1958, Explorer I was successfully launched by an Army Jupiter rocket.


Conditions were clearly ripe in post-Sputnik 1957 for the establishment of an effective presidential science advisory system. The Bureau of the Budget, frustrated at the continuing refusal of the National Science Board to coordinate policy as legislated by the National Science Foundation Act and reiterated by Executive Order in 1954, was intent on establishing an alternative mechanism in the White House or the Executive Office of the President. Author interview with Elmer Staats, December 29, 1986 (unpublished). And Eisenhower was predisposed to having an expert, non-governmental body to counterbalance the Pentagon.

PSAC members were appointed for four-year rotating terms. Virtually all charter members had had extensive experience working with the federal government during World War II, and most were well acquainted with one another. The charter members of PSAC were: Robert F. Barker, California Institute of Technology (physics); William D. Baker, Bell Telephone Laboratories (physical chemistry); John Bardeen, University of Illinois (physics); Lloyd W. Berkner, Associated Universities, Inc. (physics); Hans W. Bethe, Cornell University (physics); James H. Doolittle, Shell Oil Co. (aeronautical engineering); James B. Fisk, Bell Telephone Laboratories (physics); Caryl B. Haskins, Carnegie Institution of Washington (genetics, physiology); Charles C. Lauritsen, California Institute of Technology (physics); James R. Killian, Jr., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (administration); George B. Kistiakowsky, Harvard University (physical chemistry); Edwin H. Land, Polaroid Corp. (physics); Edward M. Purcell, Harvard University (physics); Isador I. Rabi, Columbia University (physics); H.P. Robertson, California Institute of Technology (mathematical physics); Jerome B. Wiesner, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (electrical engineering); Herbert York, Livermore Laboratory (physics); and Jerrold R. Zacharias, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (physics); Bacher, Fisk, Haskins, Land, Lauritsen, Rabi, and Zacharias were carryovers from SAC/ODM. David Z. Beckler served as executive secretary to SAC/ODM from the Truman administration and as executive secretary of PSAC until it was abolished by President Richard Nixon in January 1973. William T. Golden, ed., Science Advice to the President (New York: Pergamon Press, 1980), viii-ix. They comprised a remarkably elite, homogeneous group. Among the sixteen members (including Killian), nine came from private Eastern universities (three from MIT, two from Harvard, one each from Cornell, Columbia, and the Rockefeller University); one from the Associated Universities, Inc., a consortium of Eastern universities which that managed the Brookhaven National Laboratory; two from the California Institute of Technology, and one from the University of California, Berkeley. All members of SAC/ODM and PSAC, with their affiliations and terms of service, are given in Golden, ibid., vii-ix. The remaining four came from Bell Laboratories (two), Land Polaroid, and Shell Oil. Ten were physicists, two physical chemists, two engineers, and one a biophysicist.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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