<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

U.s. and soviet missile programs

The U.S. government had been seriously interested in unmanned rocket technology since late 1944, when several V2 rockets designed by Wernher von Braun were fired at London. Following the surrender of Germany, von Braun and several of his engineers were brought to Ft. Bliss, Texas, where they worked with the U.S. Army developing and testing rockets. In 1950, von Braun and his team moved to the Redstone Arsenal near Huntsville, Alabama, where they developed the Army’s Jupiter ballistic missile. “Dr. Wernher von Braun: First Center Director, July 1, 1960-Jan. 27, 1970,” MSFC History Office, http://history.msfc.nasa.gov.

In 1954, Eisenhower, concerned that the United States was vulnerable to surprise attack by the Soviet Union, requested that SAC/ODM conduct a study to assess that threat and recommend feasible countermeasures. SAC/ODM convened a Technology Capabilities Panel (TCP) chaired by Killian, R. Cargill Hall, “Sputnik, Eisenhower and the Formation of the United States Space Program,” Quest 14, No. 4, 34. and the president formally approved its recommendation to develop a high-altitude spy plane, later known as the U2, which could undertake reconnaissance flights over the Soviet Union and China. Mindful that such a spy plane might be shot down, In fact, in 1960 a U2 piloted by Gary Powers was shot down over the Soviet Union, an event resulting in an international furor and cancellation of a planned meeting between President Eisenhower and Soviet Secretary-General Nikita Khrushchev. the TCP also recommended that an earth satellite be developed for reconnaissance. Hall, op. cit . Meanwhile, a committee of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), charged with planning American participation in the International Geophysical Year, forwarded to NSF director and SAC/ODM member Alan Waterman a proposal to develop and launch a small scientific satellite during the IGY. The Eisenhower administration approved the recommendation on the grounds that the launching of a satellite traveling above the atmosphere would validate its open-skies policy—namely, the right of all nations to launch satellites that would fly over other countries. On July 29, 1955, Eisenhower publicly announced that the United States planned to launch “small unmanned Earth circling satellites as part of U.S. participation in the International Physical Year.” Ibid., 35

Thus the Eisenhower administration committed itself to a two-track satellite program: the highly secret spy-satellite system and the open IGY system. Interservice rivalries, however, impeded both efforts. Out of three competing rocket programs—the Navy’s Vanguard, the Army’s Redstone (headed by von Braun), and the Air Force’s Atlas—the Vanguard won out, then failed twice in attempting to launch the IGY satellite.

Meanwhile, the Soviet Union was proceeding with its own plans to develop and launch earth satellites. On May 20, 1954, the Soviet Council of Ministers charged Sergey P. Korolev’s Scientific Research Institute Number 88 with developing an Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) capable of carrying a nuclear warhead to the United States. Ibid., 34. Shortly thereafter, Korolev requested authority to form a research department to study and “develop various aspects of this problem [development of an earth satellite].” On April 16, 1955, the Soviet daily Pravda announced that an Interdepartmental Commission of the Soviet Academy of Sciences had been charged with building an “automatic laboratory for scientific research in space.” Realizing that they could not complete the project prior to the end of the IGY, the Soviets opted to develop smaller, simpler satellites that would contain no instrumentation except a radio that could beam periodic signals to the earth. Hence the successful launching of Sputnik 1, followed a month later by the launch of Sputnik 2, carrying the dog, Laika.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask