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Acid rain can have a very damaging effect on the environment. In rivers, dams and lakes, increased acidity can mean that some species of animals and plants will not survive. Acid rain can also degrade soil minerals, producing metal ions that are washed into water systems. Some of these ions may be toxic e.g. Al 3 + . From an economic perspective, altered soil pH can drastically affect agricultural productivity.

Acid rain can also affect buildings and monuments, many of which are made from marble and limestone. A chemical reaction takes place between CaCO 3 (limestone) and sulphuric acid to produce aqueous ions which can be easily washed away. The same reaction can occur in the lithosphere where limestone rocks are present e.g. limestone caves can be eroded by acidic rainwater.

H 2 SO 4 + CaCO 3 CaSO 4 · H 2 O + CO 2

Investigation : acid rain

You are going to test the effect of 'acid rain' on a number of substances.

Materials needed:


samples of chalk, marble, zinc, iron, lead, dilute sulphuric acid, test tubes, beaker, glass dropper

Method:

  1. Place a small sample of each of the following substances in a separate test tube: chalk, marble, zinc, iron and lead
  2. To each test tube, add a few drops of dilute sulphuric acid.
  3. Observe what happens and record your results.

Discussion questions:

  • In which of the test tubes did reactions take place? What happened to the sample substances?
  • What do your results tell you about the effect that acid rain could have on each of the following: buildings, soils, rocks and geology, water ecosystems?
  • What precautions could be taken to reduce the potential impact of acid rain?

Electrolytes, ionisation and conductivity

Conductivity in aqueous solutions, is a measure of the ability of water to conduct an electric current. The more ions there are in the solution, the higher its conductivity.

Conductivity
Conductivity is a measure of a solution's ability to conduct an electric current.

Electrolytes

An electrolyte is a material that increases the conductivity of water when dissolved in it. Electrolytes can be further divided into strong electrolytes and weak electrolytes .

Electrolyte
An electrolyte is a substance that contains free ions and behaves as an electrically conductive medium. Because they generally consist of ions in solution, electrolytes are also known as ionic solutions.
  1. Strong electrolytes A strong electrolyte is a material that ionises completely when it is dissolved in water:
    AB (s, l, g) A + (aq) + B - (aq)
    This is a chemical change because the original compound has been split into its component ions and bonds have been broken. In a strong electrolyte, we say that the extent of ionisation is high. In other words, the original material dissociates completely so that there is a high concentration of ions in the solution. An example is a solution of potassium nitrate:
    KNO 3 (s) K + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq)
  2. Weak electrolytes A weak electrolyte is a material that goes into solution and will be surrounded by water molecules when it is added to water. However, not all of the molecules will dissociate into ions. The extent of ionisation of a weak electrolyte is low and therefore the concentration of ions in the solution is also low.
    A B ( s , l , g ) A B ( a q ) A + ( aq ) + B - ( aq )
    The following example shows that in the final solution of a weak electrolyte, some of the original compound plus some dissolved ions are present.
    C 2 H 3 O 2 H ( l ) C 2 H 3 O 2 H C 2 H 3 O 2 - ( aq ) + H + ( aq )

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Good
What makes metals better to use as wires than non-metals? (please link to bonding type)??? HELP
Yash Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry grade 10 [caps]. OpenStax CNX. Jun 13, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11303/1.4
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