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K 2 SO 4 (s) 2 K + (aq) + SO 4 2 - (aq)

Remember that molecular substances (e.g. covalent compounds) may also dissolve, but most will not form ions. One example is sugar.

C 6 H 12 O 6 (s) C 6 H 12 O 6 (aq)

There are exceptions to this and some molecular substances will form ions when they dissolve. Hydrogen chloride for example can ionise to form hydrogen and chloride ions.

HCl(g) H + (aq) + Cl - (aq)

Interesting fact

The ability of ionic compounds to dissolve in water is extremely important in the human body! The body is made up of cells , each of which is surrounded by a membrane . Dissolved ions are found inside and outside of body cells in different concentrations. Some of these ions are positive (e.g. Mg 2 + ) and some are negative (e.g. Cl - ). If there is a difference in the charge that is inside and outside the cell, then there is a potential difference across the cell membrane. This is called the membrane potential of the cell. The membrane potential acts like a battery and affects the movement of all charged substances across the membrane. Membrane potentials play a role in muscle functioning, digestion, excretion and in maintaining blood pH to name just a few. The movement of ions across the membrane can also be converted into an electric signal that can be transferred along neurons (nerve cells), which control body processes. If ionic substances were not able to dissociate in water, then none of these processes would be possible! It is also important to realise that our bodies can lose ions such as Na + , K + , Ca 2 + , Mg 2 + , and Cl - , for example when we sweat during exercise. Sports drinks such as Lucozade and Powerade are designed to replace these lost ions so that the body's normal functioning is not affected.

Write a balanced equation to show how silver nitrate ( AgNO 3 ) dissociates in water.

  1. The cation is: Ag + and the anion is: NO 3 -
  2. Since we know both the anion and the cation that silver nitrate dissociates into we can write the following equation:
    AgNO 3 (s) Ag + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq)

Ions in solution

  1. For each of the following, say whether the substance is ionic or molecular.
    1. potassium nitrate ( KNO 3 )
    2. ethanol ( C 2 H 5 OH )
    3. sucrose (a type of sugar) ( C 12 H 22 O 11 )
    4. sodium bromide ( NaBr )
  2. Write a balanced equation to show how each of the following ionic compounds dissociate in water.
    1. sodium sulphate ( Na 2 SO 4 )
    2. potassium bromide ( KBr )
    3. potassium permanganate ( KMnO 4 )
    4. sodium phosphate ( Na 3 PO 4 )

Ions and water hardness

This section is not examinable and is included as an example of ions in aqueous solution.

Water hardness
Water hardness is a measure of the mineral content of water. Minerals are substances such as calcite, quartz and mica that occur naturally as a result of geological processes.

Hard water is water that has a high mineral content. Water that has a low mineral content is known as soft water . If water has a high mineral content, it usually contains high levels of metal ions, mainly calcium ( Ca ) and magnesium ( Mg ). The calcium enters the water from either CaCO 3 (limestone or chalk) or from mineral deposits of CaSO 4 . The main source of magnesium is a sedimentary rock called dolomite, CaMg(CO 3 ) 2 . Hard water may also contain other metals as well as bicarbonates and sulphates.

Questions & Answers

show that the set of all natural number form semi group under the composition of addition
Nikhil Reply
explain and give four Example hyperbolic function
Lukman Reply
_3_2_1
felecia
⅗ ⅔½
felecia
_½+⅔-¾
felecia
The denominator of a certain fraction is 9 more than the numerator. If 6 is added to both terms of the fraction, the value of the fraction becomes 2/3. Find the original fraction. 2. The sum of the least and greatest of 3 consecutive integers is 60. What are the valu
SABAL Reply
1. x + 6 2 -------------- = _ x + 9 + 6 3 x + 6 3 ----------- x -- (cross multiply) x + 15 2 3(x + 6) = 2(x + 15) 3x + 18 = 2x + 30 (-2x from both) x + 18 = 30 (-18 from both) x = 12 Test: 12 + 6 18 2 -------------- = --- = --- 12 + 9 + 6 27 3
Pawel
2. (x) + (x + 2) = 60 2x + 2 = 60 2x = 58 x = 29 29, 30, & 31
Pawel
ok
Ifeanyi
on number 2 question How did you got 2x +2
Ifeanyi
combine like terms. x + x + 2 is same as 2x + 2
Pawel
x*x=2
felecia
2+2x=
felecia
Mark and Don are planning to sell each of their marble collections at a garage sale. If Don has 1 more than 3 times the number of marbles Mark has, how many does each boy have to sell if the total number of marbles is 113?
mariel Reply
Mark = x,. Don = 3x + 1 x + 3x + 1 = 113 4x = 112, x = 28 Mark = 28, Don = 85, 28 + 85 = 113
Pawel
how do I set up the problem?
Harshika Reply
what is a solution set?
Harshika
find the subring of gaussian integers?
Rofiqul
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Shirley Reply
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Abdullahi
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Mark
I need quadratic equation link to Alpa Beta
Abdullahi Reply
find the value of 2x=32
Felix Reply
divide by 2 on each side of the equal sign to solve for x
corri
X=16
Michael
Want to review on complex number 1.What are complex number 2.How to solve complex number problems.
Beyan
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Mark
use the y -intercept and slope to sketch the graph of the equation y=6x
Only Reply
how do we prove the quadratic formular
Seidu Reply
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Darius
hello, if you have a question about Algebra 2. I may be able to help. I am an Algebra 2 Teacher
Shirley Reply
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Seidu
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Opoku
what is math number
Tric Reply
4
Trista
x-2y+3z=-3 2x-y+z=7 -x+3y-z=6
Sidiki Reply
can you teacch how to solve that🙏
Mark
Solve for the first variable in one of the equations, then substitute the result into the other equation. Point For: (6111,4111,−411)(6111,4111,-411) Equation Form: x=6111,y=4111,z=−411x=6111,y=4111,z=-411
Brenna
(61/11,41/11,−4/11)
Brenna
x=61/11 y=41/11 z=−4/11 x=61/11 y=41/11 z=-4/11
Brenna
Need help solving this problem (2/7)^-2
Simone Reply
x+2y-z=7
Sidiki
what is the coefficient of -4×
Mehri Reply
-1
Shedrak
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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What makes metals better to use as wires than non-metals? (please link to bonding type)??? HELP
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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry grade 10 [caps]. OpenStax CNX. Jun 13, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11303/1.4
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