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Introduction

Many reactions in chemistry and all biological reactions (reactions in living systems) take place in water. We say that these reactions take place in aqueous solution. Water has many unique properties and is plentiful on Earth. For these reasons reactions in aqueous solutions occur frequently. In this chapter we will look at some of these reactions in detail. Almost all the reactions that occur in aqueous solutions involve ions. We will look at three main types of reactions that occur in aqueous solutions, namely precipitation reactions, acid-base reactions and redox reactions. Before we can learn about the types of reactions, we need to first look at ions in aqueous solutions and electrical conductivity.

Ions in aqueous solution

Water is seldom pure. Because of the structure of the water molecule, substances can dissolve easily in it. This is very important because if water wasn't able to do this, life would not be able to survive. In rivers and the oceans for example, dissolved oxygen means that organisms (such as fish) are still able to respire (breathe). For plants, dissolved nutrients are also available. In the human body, water is able to carry dissolved substances from one part of the body to another.

Many of the substances that dissolve are ionic and when they dissolve they form ions in solution. We are going to look at how water is able to dissolve ionic compounds, how these ions maintain a balance in the human body, how they affect water hardness and how they cause acid rain.

Dissociation in water

Water is a polar molecule ( [link] ). This means that one part of the molecule has a slightly positive charge (positive pole) and the other part has a slightly negative charge (negative pole).

Water is a polar molecule

It is the polar nature of water that allows ionic compounds to dissolve in it. In the case of sodium chloride ( NaCl ) for example, the positive sodium ions ( Na + ) will be attracted to the negative pole of the water molecule, while the negative chloride ions ( Cl - ) will be attracted to the positive pole of the water molecule. In the process, the ionic bonds between the sodium and chloride ions are weakened and the water molecules are able to work their way between the individual ions, surrounding them and slowly dissolving the compound. This process is called dissociation . A simplified representation of this is shown in [link] . We say that dissolution of a substance has occurred when a substance dissociates or dissolves.

Dissociation
Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which ionic compounds separate or split into smaller molecules or ions, usually in a reversible manner.
Sodium chloride dissolves in water

The dissolution of sodium chloride can be represented by the following equation:

NaCl(s) Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq)

The symbols s (solid), l (liquid), g (gas) and aq (material is dissolved in water) are written after the chemical formula to show the state or phase of the material. The dissolution of potassium sulphate into potassium and sulphate ions is shown below as another example:

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Mueller Reply
What makes metals better to use as wires than non-metals? (please link to bonding type)??? HELP
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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry grade 10 [caps]. OpenStax CNX. Jun 13, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11303/1.4
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