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Probabilistic hashing

Perhaps the simplest solution to a collision is to replace the value that is already in the slot with the new value, or slightly less commonly, drop the record that is to be inserted. In later searches, this may result in a search not finding a record which has been inserted. This technique is particularly useful for implementing caching.

An even more space-efficient solution which is similar to this is use a bit array (an array of one-bit fields) for our table. Initially all bits are set to zero, and when we insert a key, we set the corresponding bit to one. False negatives cannot occur, but false positives can, since if the search finds a 1 bit, it will claim that the value was found, even if it was just another value that hashed into the same array slot by coincidence. In reality, such a hash table is merely a specific type of Bloom filter.

Robin Hood hashing

One interesting variation on double-hashing collision resolution is that of Robin Hood hashing. The idea is that a key already inserted may be displaced by a new key if its probe count is larger than the key at the current position. The net effect of this is that it reduces worst case search times in the table. This is similar to Knuth's ordered hash tables except the criteria for bumping a key does not depend on a direct relationship between the keys.

Table resizing

With a good hash function, a hash table can typically contain about 70%–80% as many elements as it does table slots and still perform well. Depending on the collision resolution mechanism, performance can begin to suffer either gradually or dramatically as more elements are added. To deal with this, when the load factor exceeds some threshold, it is necessary to allocate a new, larger table, and add all the contents of the original table to this new table. In Java's HashMap class, for example, the default load factor threshold is 0.75.

This can be a very expensive operation, and the necessity for it is one of the hash table's disadvantages. In fact, some naive methods for doing this, such as enlarging the table by one each time you add a new element, reduce performance so drastically as to make the hash table useless. However, if the table is enlarged by some fixed percent, such as 10% or 100%, it can be shown using amortized analysis that these resizings are so infrequent that the average time per lookup remains constant-time. To see why this is true, suppose a hash table using chaining begins at the minimum size of 1 and is doubled each time it fills above 100%. If in the end it contains n elements, then the total add operations performed for all the resizings is:

1 + 2 + 4 + ... + n = 2n - 1.

Because the costs of the resizings form a geometric series, the total cost is O(n). But it is necessary also to perform n operations to add the n elements in the first place, so the total time to add n elements with resizing is O(n), an amortized time of O(1) per element.

On the other hand, some hash table implementations, notably in real-time systems, cannot pay the price of enlarging the hash table all at once, because it may interrupt time-critical operations. One simple approach is to initially allocate the table with enough space for the expected number of elements and forbid the addition of too many elements. Another useful but more memory-intensive technique is to perform the resizing gradually:

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Data structures and algorithms. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10765/1.1
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