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Collision resolution

If two keys hash to the same index, the corresponding records cannot be stored in the same location. So, if it's already occupied, we must find another location to store the new record, and do it so that we can find it when we look it up later on.

To give an idea of the importance of a good collision resolution strategy, consider the following result, derived using the birthday paradox. Even if we assume that our hash function outputs random indices uniformly distributed over the array, and even for a hash table with 1 million indices, there is a 95% chance of at least one collision occurring before it contains 2500 records.

There are a number of collision resolution techniques, but the most popular are chaining and open addressing.

Chaining

Hash collision resolved by chaining

In the simplest chained hash table technique, each slot in the array references a linked list of inserted records that collide to the same slot. Insertion requires finding the correct slot, and appending to either end of the list in that slot; deletion requires searching the list and removal.

Chained hash tables have advantages over open addressed hash tables in that the removal operation is simple and resizing the table can be postponed for a much longer time because performance degrades more gracefully even when every slot is used. Indeed, many chaining hash tables may not require resizing at all since performance degradation is linear as the table fills. For example, a chaining hash table containing twice its recommended capacity of data would only be about twice as slow on average as the same table at its recommended capacity.

Chained hash tables inherit the disadvantages of linked lists. When storing small records, the overhead of the linked list can be significant. An additional disadvantage is that traversing a linked list has poor cache performance.

Alternative data structures can be used for chains instead of linked lists. By using a self-balancing tree, for example, the theoretical worst-case time of a hash table can be brought down to O(log n) rather than O(n). However, since each list is intended to be short, this approach is usually inefficient unless the hash table is designed to run at full capacity or there are unusually high collision rates, as might occur in input designed to cause collisions. Dynamic arrays can also be used to decrease space overhead and improve cache performance when records are small.

Some chaining implementations use an optimization where the first record of each chain is stored in the table. The purpose is to increase cache efficiency of hash table access. In order to avoid wasting large amounts of space, such hash tables would maintain a load factor of 1.0 or greater.

Open addressing

Hash collision resolved by linear probing (interval=1)

Open addressing hash tables store the records directly within the array. This approach is also called closed hashing. A hash collision is resolved by probing, or searching through alternate locations in the array (the probe sequence) until either the target record is found, or an unused array slot is found, which indicates that there is no such key in the table. [2] Well known probe sequences include:

Questions & Answers

what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
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Source:  OpenStax, Data structures and algorithms. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10765/1.1
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