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Introduction

The Lewis model of chemical bonding is one of the most powerful models in all of Chemistry. With the simple concepts of the octet rule and the sharing of an electron pair to form a chemical bond, we can predict what combinations of atoms and which molecular structures are likely to be stable or unstable. For example, we can predict that the molecular formula C 4 H 10 should correspond to a stable molecular structure, since it possible to draw a Lewis structure in which all four carbon atoms have an octet of valence electrons and each hydrogen atom has two valence electrons. In fact, we can even predict that there should be two such molecular structures corresponding to two different stable compounds, butane and methyl propane (often called isobutane). Lewis structures also allow us to predict the relative strengths and lengths of chemical bonds. For example, we can predict that in the molecule propene C 3 H 6 , one of the C-C bonds is a single bond and the other is a double bond; correspondingly, we can predict that the double bond is shorter and stronger than the single bond.

In general, for any molecule containing some combination of atoms of C, N, H, O, and any of the halogens (F, Cl, Br, or I), we can predict with confidence that the molecule will be a stable compound if we can draw a Lewis structure in which the C, N, O, and halogen atoms all have an octet of valence electrons. This is a very significant statement, since the overwhelming majority of the molecules of organic chemistry are composed of only these atoms. The converse is also generally true: if we cannot draw a Lewis structure in which these atoms have an octet of valence electrons, we will predict fairly confidently that a stable compound of that molecular formula probably does not exist. Note that “stable” does not mean “non-reactive.” In this context, “stable” means that the compound exists and can be isolated for long periods of time. Methane CH 4 is a stable compound which can be manufactured, captured, stored, and transported. However, it is also a reactive compound, reacting rapidly with oxygen gas in one of the most common combustion reactions in the world.

These are the reasons why we say that the Lewis structure model of covalent bonding is one of the most important models in all of Chemistry. However, like most good models, the understanding we get from the model comes with even more questions we might want to ask. In this Concept Development Study, we will address several of these, while others will wait for later studies. First, why does sharing a pair of electrons create a chemical bonding? More pointedly, what does it even mean to “share” an electron between two atoms? And why do atoms prefer to share a pair of electrons, rather than one or three? Of course, we’ve also seen that atoms can share more than one pair of electrons, creating double or triple bonds. We might have guessed that, with more electrons being shared, these electrons would repel each other, leading to a higher energy, but this is not the case. Why does sharing more than one pair of electrons produce a stronger bond?

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry 2013. OpenStax CNX. Oct 07, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11579/1.1
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