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Skewness and kurtosis coefficients
CH005TC09R CL005TC09R CW005TC09R
N Valid 3125 1805 1877
Missing 5197 6517 6445
Skewness -1.129 -.479 -2.197
Std. Error of Skewness .044 .058 .056
Kurtosis 1.818 -.42 6.991
Std. Error of Kurtosis .088 .115 .113
  • Copy skewness and kurtosis information into the skewness and kurtosis calculator

Step two

  • Compute Descriptive Statistics on the Dependent Variable
  • * Do so via the ANOVA procedure
  • * Note. Do not use the ANOVA statistical significance information provided in the output. Use only the M s, SD s, and n s.
  • * The screen shot will occur in the next step (Mean and standard deviation)

Step three

  • Conduct Analysis of Variance
  • √ Analyze
  • √ General Linear Model
  • √ Univariate

  • √ Dependent variable is sent over to the top box, titled dependent variable
  • √ Grouping Variable is sent over to the fixed factor box

  • √ Options
  • √ Descriptive Statistics
  • √ Estimate of effect size
  • √ Continue

  • √ Post Hoc
  • √ Scheffé
  • √ Click on variables on which you want the Post Hoc Tests
  • √ Continue
  • √ OK

Step four

  • Check for Statistical Significance
  • 1. Go to the ANOVA table and look at the far right column labeled Sig to check for statistical significance.
  • 2. If you have any value less than .05 then you have statistical significance. Remember to replace the third zero with a 1, if the sig value is .000 (i.e., if the sig value reads as .000, replace the third 0, so it reads as .001).
  • 3. Numerical Sentence = F ( df between, df within) sp = sp F value, sp p sp < sp .001.
  • 4. The outcome of the ANOVA, F (2,1179) = 503.22, p = .001, was . . . .

Dependent Variable: Verbal IQ (Wechsler Verbal Intelligence 3)

Tests between-subjects effects
Source Type III Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig. Partial Eta Squared
Corrected 101503.093 a 2 50751.547 503.219 .000 .461
Intercept 6366052.170 1 6366052.170 63121.595 .000 .982
group 101503.093 2 50751.547 503.219 .000 .461
Error 118906.620 1179 100.854
Total 7405615.000 1182
Corrected Total 220409.713 1181
  • a. R Squared = .461 (Adjusted R Square = .460)

Step five

  • 1. Partial Eta 2 is the effect size n 2
  • 2. Cohen (1988)
  • .01 - .059 = small effect size
  • .06 - .139 = moderate effect size
  • .14 and above = large effect size
  • Note. n 2 cannot be greater than 1.00. Therefore, a 0 should not be placed in front of the decimal point.

Step six:

  • Narrative and Interpretation
  • 1. F value
  • 2. degrees of freedom for groups and for participants
  • 3. p value
  • 4. Post hoc results
  • 5. M , SD , and n for each group (in a table)

Writing up your statistics

So, how do you "write up" your Research Questions and your Results? Schuler W. Huck (2000) in his seminal book entitled, Reading Statistics and Research, points to the importance of your audience understanding and making sense of your research in written form. Huck further states:

This book is designed to help people decipher what researchers are trying to communicate in the written or oral summaries of their investigations. Here, the goal is simply to distill meaning from the words, symbols, tables, and figures included in the research report. To be competent in this arena, one must not only be able to decipher what's presented but also to "fill in the holes"; this is the case because researchers typically assume that those receiving the research report are familiar with unmentioned details of the research process and statistical treatment of data.

Researchers and Professors John Slate and Ana Rojas-LeBouef understand this critical issue, so often neglected or not addressed by other authors and researchers. They point to the importance of doctoral students "writing up their statistics" in a way that others can understand your reporting and as importantly, interpret the meaning of your significant findings and implications for the preparation and practice of educational leadership. Slate and LeBouef provide you with a model for "writing up your parametric ANOVA statistics."

Click here to view: Writing Up Your Parametric One Way ANOVA Statistics


  • Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.) . Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erbaum
  • Hyperstats Online Statistics Textbook. (n.d.) Retrieved from (External Link)
  • Kurtosis. (n.d.). Definition. Retrieved from (External Link)&term_id=326
  • Kurtosis. (n.d.). Definition of normality . Retrieved from (External Link)
  • Onwuegbuzie, A. J.,&Daniel, L. G. (2002). Uses and misuses of the correlation coefficient. Research in the Schools, 9 (1) , 73-90.
  • Skewness. (n.d.) Retrieved from (External Link)&term_id=356
  • Skewness. (n.d.). Definition of normality . Retrieved from (External Link)
  • StatSoft, Inc. (2011). Electronic statistics textbook. Tulsa, OK: StatSoft. WEB: (External Link)

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
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Source:  OpenStax, Calculating basic statistical procedures in spss: a self-help and practical guide to preparing theses, dissertations, and manuscripts. OpenStax CNX. Apr 28, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11292/1.6
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