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And then you had Korea. And everybody woke up! Everybody woke up!! The world was not going to be perfect—ever!!! And rationalization for the pursuit of science and advanced education began to turn toward the umbrella of national security.

—William D. Carey, 1986

Their attitude is that when the crisis comes, the organization will spring up virtually automatically around the science leaders who will come to the fore spontaneously.

—William T. Golden, 1951

Militarization of the cold war

The Korean crisis resulted in a fragmentation of U.S. science policy just as the Truman administration was putting it in place. Because the war focused the attention of the late Truman and early Eisenhower administrations on relatively short-term military applications, divergence between defense- and non-defense science policies widened, and support for the latter was undercut. The science policy debates of the late 1940s had frequently involved areas of vital national interest, such as national defense, public health, agriculture, and effective mechanisms for bringing scientific results to bear on them. Such issues were encompassed by what Harvey Brooks was later to call science-for-policy. Harvey Brooks, The Government of Science (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1968). Although Science–the Endless Frontier had focused primarily on policy-for-science, it also envisioned its proposed National Research Foundation as playing a pivotal role in science-for-policy. One result of the Korean War was to legitimize, if only tacitly, the divorce of science-for-policy and policy-for-science, thus relegating the post-World-War-II hope of formulating a coherent national science policy to at least temporary oblivion.

The Korean crisis brought on immediate expansion of federal defense appropriations. In July 1951, President Harry Truman called upon the Congress for an immediate $11.3 billion emergency defense appropriation, both to increase the American military presence in Korea and to prepare for what might become a wider conflict. William A. Blanpied, Impacts of the Early Cold War on the Formulation of US Science Policy (Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1995), xviii. By the end of fiscal year 1951, additional supplementary appropriations had raised the total defense budget to $48 billion. For fiscal year 1952, Truman requested and Congress budgeted $60 billion for defense.

Federal R&D budgets reflected this militarization trend. In fiscal year 1952, total federal R&D expenditures were approximately $2 billion, with defense-related R&D appropriations having doubled to $1.3 billion in just two years.

The presumably non-defense–oriented National Science Foundation was established scarcely six weeks before the outbreak of the Korean War; had the invasion of North Korea occurred six weeks or more earlier, the National Science Foundation Act of 1950 likely would not have passed. And given the tenor of the country for years after, the Foundation might never have been established; from the beginning of the Korean War to the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, national defense effectively drove national science policy, with the military services (until the Vietnam War controversies) providing financial support for university basic research.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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