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And then you had Korea. And everybody woke up! Everybody woke up!! The world was not going to be perfect—ever!!! And rationalization for the pursuit of science and advanced education began to turn toward the umbrella of national security.

—William D. Carey, 1986

Their attitude is that when the crisis comes, the organization will spring up virtually automatically around the science leaders who will come to the fore spontaneously.

—William T. Golden, 1951

Militarization of the cold war

The Korean crisis resulted in a fragmentation of U.S. science policy just as the Truman administration was putting it in place. Because the war focused the attention of the late Truman and early Eisenhower administrations on relatively short-term military applications, divergence between defense- and non-defense science policies widened, and support for the latter was undercut. The science policy debates of the late 1940s had frequently involved areas of vital national interest, such as national defense, public health, agriculture, and effective mechanisms for bringing scientific results to bear on them. Such issues were encompassed by what Harvey Brooks was later to call science-for-policy. Harvey Brooks, The Government of Science (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1968). Although Science–the Endless Frontier had focused primarily on policy-for-science, it also envisioned its proposed National Research Foundation as playing a pivotal role in science-for-policy. One result of the Korean War was to legitimize, if only tacitly, the divorce of science-for-policy and policy-for-science, thus relegating the post-World-War-II hope of formulating a coherent national science policy to at least temporary oblivion.

The Korean crisis brought on immediate expansion of federal defense appropriations. In July 1951, President Harry Truman called upon the Congress for an immediate $11.3 billion emergency defense appropriation, both to increase the American military presence in Korea and to prepare for what might become a wider conflict. William A. Blanpied, Impacts of the Early Cold War on the Formulation of US Science Policy (Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1995), xviii. By the end of fiscal year 1951, additional supplementary appropriations had raised the total defense budget to $48 billion. For fiscal year 1952, Truman requested and Congress budgeted $60 billion for defense.

Federal R&D budgets reflected this militarization trend. In fiscal year 1952, total federal R&D expenditures were approximately $2 billion, with defense-related R&D appropriations having doubled to $1.3 billion in just two years.

The presumably non-defense–oriented National Science Foundation was established scarcely six weeks before the outbreak of the Korean War; had the invasion of North Korea occurred six weeks or more earlier, the National Science Foundation Act of 1950 likely would not have passed. And given the tenor of the country for years after, the Foundation might never have been established; from the beginning of the Korean War to the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, national defense effectively drove national science policy, with the military services (until the Vietnam War controversies) providing financial support for university basic research.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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