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Synthesis of solid state materials

There exist many synthetic methods to make crystalline solids. Traditional solid state chemical reactions are often slow and require high temperatures and long periods of time for reactants to form the desire compound. They also require that reactants are mixed in the solid state by grinding two solids together. In this manner the mixture formed is heterogeneous (i.e. not in the same phase), and high temperatures are required to increase the mobility of the ions that are being formed into the new solid binary phase. Another approach to get solid state binary structures is using a precursor material such as a metal carbonate, that upon decomposition at high temperatures loses gaseous CO 2 size 12{ ital "CO" rSub { size 8{2} } } {} resulting in very fine particles of the corresponding metal oxide (e.g., BaCO 3 ( s ) BaO ( s ) + CO 2 ( g ) size 12{ ital "BaCO" rSub { size 8{3 \( s \) } } rightarrow ital "BaO" rSub { size 8{ \( s \) } } + ital "CO" rSub { size 8{2 \( g \) } } } {} ).

X-ray crystallography


To determine the atomic or molecular structure of a crystal diffraction of X-rays is used. It was observed that visible light can be diffracted by the use of optical grids, because these are arranged in a regular manner. Energy sources such as X-rays have such small wavelengths that only“grids”the size of atoms will be able to diffract X-rays. As mentioned before a crystal has regular molecular array, and therefore it is possible, to use X-ray diffraction to determine the location of the atoms in crystal lattice. When such an experiment is carried out we say that we have determined the crystal structure of the substance. The study of crystal structures is known as crystallography and it is one of the most powerful techniques used today to characterize new compounds. You will discuss the principles behind X-ray diffraction in the lecture part of this course.




A superconductor is an element, or compound that will conduct electricity without resistance when it is below a certain temperature. Without resistance the electrical current will flow continuously in a closed loop as long as the material is kept below an specific temperature. Since the electrical resistance is zero, supercurrents are generated in the material to exclude the magnetic fields from a magnet brought near it. The currents which cancel the external field produce magnetic poles opposite to the poles of the permanent magnet, repelling them to provide the lift to levitate the magnet . In some countries (including USA) this magnet levitation has been used for transporation. Specifically trains can take advantage of this levitation to virtually eliminate friction between the vehicle and the tracks. A train levitated over a superconductor can attain speeds over 300 mph!

Solid state model kits

In this experiment we will use the Institute for Chemical Education (ICE) Solid-State Model Kits which are designed for creating a variety of common and important solid state structures. Please be careful with these materials as they are quite expensive. There is a list of kit components on the inside of the lid of each box. Please make sure that you have all the listed pieces and that these are in their proper locations when you finish using the kit.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Honors chemistry lab fall. OpenStax CNX. Nov 15, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10456/1.16
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