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Synthesis of solid state materials

There exist many synthetic methods to make crystalline solids. Traditional solid state chemical reactions are often slow and require high temperatures and long periods of time for reactants to form the desire compound. They also require that reactants are mixed in the solid state by grinding two solids together. In this manner the mixture formed is heterogeneous (i.e. not in the same phase), and high temperatures are required to increase the mobility of the ions that are being formed into the new solid binary phase. Another approach to get solid state binary structures is using a precursor material such as a metal carbonate, that upon decomposition at high temperatures loses gaseous CO 2 size 12{ ital "CO" rSub { size 8{2} } } {} resulting in very fine particles of the corresponding metal oxide (e.g., BaCO 3 ( s ) BaO ( s ) + CO 2 ( g ) size 12{ ital "BaCO" rSub { size 8{3 \( s \) } } rightarrow ital "BaO" rSub { size 8{ \( s \) } } + ital "CO" rSub { size 8{2 \( g \) } } } {} ).

X-ray crystallography

 

To determine the atomic or molecular structure of a crystal diffraction of X-rays is used. It was observed that visible light can be diffracted by the use of optical grids, because these are arranged in a regular manner. Energy sources such as X-rays have such small wavelengths that only“grids”the size of atoms will be able to diffract X-rays. As mentioned before a crystal has regular molecular array, and therefore it is possible, to use X-ray diffraction to determine the location of the atoms in crystal lattice. When such an experiment is carried out we say that we have determined the crystal structure of the substance. The study of crystal structures is known as crystallography and it is one of the most powerful techniques used today to characterize new compounds. You will discuss the principles behind X-ray diffraction in the lecture part of this course.

 

Superconductors

 

A superconductor is an element, or compound that will conduct electricity without resistance when it is below a certain temperature. Without resistance the electrical current will flow continuously in a closed loop as long as the material is kept below an specific temperature. Since the electrical resistance is zero, supercurrents are generated in the material to exclude the magnetic fields from a magnet brought near it. The currents which cancel the external field produce magnetic poles opposite to the poles of the permanent magnet, repelling them to provide the lift to levitate the magnet . In some countries (including USA) this magnet levitation has been used for transporation. Specifically trains can take advantage of this levitation to virtually eliminate friction between the vehicle and the tracks. A train levitated over a superconductor can attain speeds over 300 mph!

Solid state model kits

In this experiment we will use the Institute for Chemical Education (ICE) Solid-State Model Kits which are designed for creating a variety of common and important solid state structures. Please be careful with these materials as they are quite expensive. There is a list of kit components on the inside of the lid of each box. Please make sure that you have all the listed pieces and that these are in their proper locations when you finish using the kit.

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
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Source:  OpenStax, Honors chemistry lab fall. OpenStax CNX. Nov 15, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10456/1.16
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