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Academic vocabulary development

In order to develop full English proficiency, including the ability to apply that knowledge for the purpose of academic learning, the acquisition of academic vocabulary and concepts is a necessity (Abedi, 2004; Bielenberg&Wong Fillmore, 2004/2005; Goldenberg&Coleman, 2010; Saunders&Goldenberg, 2010; Soto-Hinman&Hetzel, 2009; Marzano&Pickering, 2005; Zwiers, 2004/2005). Far too often, English learners get to the Intermediate level of language acquisition and do not progress beyond that point for years (Clark, 2009; Freeman&Freeman, 2002). As a result, these students continue to be classified as English learners for several years and do not achieve academic proficiency (Clark, 2009; Cummins, 1981; Freeman&Freeman, 2002; Lachat, 2004). While these students are able to converse well in English, they lack the academic language proficiency needed to fully participate in academic instruction at the level of rigor required to meet challenging academic standards (Bielenberg&Wong Fillmore, 2004/2005; Cummins, 1981). As a result, these students are left behind their peers and effectively locked out of the very educational opportunities that would support them in being full participants in an English-speaking society.

The most pressing issue is the fact that academic language is the language of text books and of academic achievement tests. Yet unlike social language that develops over time through repeated encounters that may be social in nature, academic language must be thoughtfully taught (Bielenberg&Wong Fillmore, 2004/2005; Dutro&Kinsella, 2010; Snow&Katz, 2010; Zwiers, 2004/2005). This type of instruction ensures comprehension of the concept and learning of the associated vocabulary (Krashen, 1981). In a society where such a heavy emphasis is placed on the results of academic achievement tests, knowledge of academic vocabulary and language structures is absolutely essential for student achievement and success (Abedi, 2004; Bielenberg&Wong Fillmore, 2004/2005; Cummins, 1981; Goldenberg&Coleman, 2010; Marzano&Pickering, 2005; Soto-Hinman&Hetzel, 2009; Zwiers, 2004/2005).

The relationship of leadership to learning

What role do leaders play in student learning? A number of studies have linked student achievement to effective school leadership. Marzano, Waters, and McNulty (2005) performed a meta-analysis involving hundreds of studies including nearly one and a half million students and identified 21 responsibilities of school leaders that contribute to increased student achievement. Two of the responsibilities with the highest correlation to learning, Knowledge of curriculum, instruction, and assessment and Participation in curriculum, instruction, and assessment combined are at the core of effective instructional leadership. Many of the other responsibilities link to these two.

Similarly, a number of other studies have found a relationship between effective leadership and learning. Leithwood and Walstrom (2008) identified many of the same traits as Marzano, Waters and McNulty (2005). Other studies found one or more leadership factors linked to student learning (Cotton, 1995; Fuhrman, Clune,&Elmore, 1988; Hallinger&Heck, 1996; Leithwood&Reihl, 2003; Levine,&Lezotte, 1990; Murphy&Louis, 1994; Ogawa&Bossert, 1995; Rosenholtz, 1985; Sammons, Hillman,&Mortimore, 1995; van de Grift&Houtveen, 1999). School leaders must know which effective leadership traits and practices contribute to student learning and make use of them in their daily work.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Educational leadership and administration: teaching and program development, volume 23, 2011. OpenStax CNX. Sep 08, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11358/1.4
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