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Something significant about the quadrants for education is that if a subject or concept is unfamiliar and little context is provided to support comprehension, the learner will not be able to fully participate in the communication. The learner may simply not understand the communication or may misunderstand the intended message. All too often, classroom instruction emphasizes context-reduced cognitively demanding texts and methods. Not only does this result in decreased learning of the content for English learners, this instructional delivery often results in English learners not developing the academic skills they need to achieve language fluency (Cummins, 1981; Short&Echevarría, 2004/2005). This is both an argument for bilingual instruction that supports development of the concepts prior to instruction in the target language and for the use of sheltered instruction techniques that provide context in this cognitively demanding instructional situation (Short&Echevarría, 2004/2005; Krashen, 1981). While the emphasis of instruction is on the content, the additional context provided shifts the focus onto making meaning which supports both comprehension and language acquisition. Context alone is not enough. Research also supports communications-based instruction where the emphasis is on both comprehensible input and group activities that require learners to make connections and to use the content-related language to communicate ideas and opinions regarding relevant tasks (Carrigan, 2009; Dutro&Kinsella, 2010; Snow&Katz, 2010). This requires students to meaningfully use the language as well as to understand it. Participation needs to be well-structured in an environment that makes learners feel safe to participate (Carrigan, 2009; Krashen, 1981).

Language proficiency and assessment

Language assessments provide data that demonstrate growth in language proficiency. Assessments of academic achievement should provide data that demonstrate growth relative to the academic content of the standards. For English learners, the results of content assessments can be misleading due to language constraints (Abedi, 2004). The language complexity of items can affect both the validity and reliability of the results. This phenomenon was verified by researchers using linguistically modified items on released National Assessment of Educational Progress math items. The assessments of content using these slightly modified items consistently resulted in higher scores for English learners (Abedi&Lord, 2001).

While California does not allow linguistic modification of test items, the state does monitor language assessment and reclassification data. This practice has important implications for identification of schools that are successfully addressing the needs of their English learners. The data from content-related assessments alone may not give a complete picture since even students that demonstrate proficiency in English still struggle on standardized tests (Bielenberg&Wong-Fillmore, 2004/2005; Zwiers, 2004/2005). However, with the joint use of language acquisition assessments and reclassification data, leaders can have a more complete picture of how successful their districts are in meeting the demands of their English learners.

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
is this allso about nanoscale material
Almas
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
William
currently
William
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
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Source:  OpenStax, Educational leadership and administration: teaching and program development, volume 23, 2011. OpenStax CNX. Sep 08, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11358/1.4
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