<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

The achievement gap

The achievement gap has been the subject of discussion for many years. Possible explanations for the gap have been offered that range from poverty to lack of teacher expectations. Some assume that a gap in achievement is inevitable, while others claim that the achievement gap exists because of an educational system that is not set up to meet the needs of the children that walk through its doors (Johnson, 2002). According to the National Governor’s Association, the achievement gap is related to both race and class and “is one of the most pressing education-policy challenges that states currently face” (National Governor’s Association, n.d.).

The achievement gap is often blamed on poverty and the parents—factors outside the control of the schools (Danielson, 2002; Wallerstein&Bernstein, 1999). These reasons were also cited in the Coleman Report (1966); however, more recent research has shown that race, poverty and other parental factors are only a part of the problem. Borman found that educational experiences, including the socio-economic and ethnic make-up of the school attended, account for up to 40% of the variance in achievement (Viadero, 2006). Children living in poverty may enter school with less vocabulary, fewer life experiences, and less exposure to print resources. This is particularly true of English learners who may enter school with no English, a lack of understanding of the mainstream culture, often live in poverty, and have parents who have a culturally different expectation of their role in their child’s education. This can result in schools having lower expectations for these students, cultural bias, and school alienation of students and parents (Lindsey, Roberts,&CambellJones, 2005).

Since the passage of California Proposition 227, which mandated English only instruction in 1998, children who enter school not speaking English must sink or swim, because support for their primary language may not be available or even permissible. As a result, while their English-speaking peers begin learning the required content standards right from day one of instruction, English learners may become submersed in a sea of foreign experiences in a language that they do not yet speak or understand. English learners begin to learn on day one as well, but their learning is about navigating a foreign place and a foreign language, not yet about the content standards required by the state.

The result is that many of these ELs make less than a full year’s growth related to the content standards required for the academic year. If English learners enter school in kindergarten, they may quickly pick up enough English to benefit from much of the instruction related to the content standards. However, the older an English learner is upon school entry, the more difficult it can be to learn both the English language and the content of the standards quickly enough. Research shows that when students struggle to make progress year after year, they fall further and further behind (Clark, 2009; Short&Echevarría, 2004/2005; Thomas&Collier, 2002). Year after year of school failure results in high drop out rates over time (Murphy, 2010).

Questions & Answers

show that the set of all natural number form semi group under the composition of addition
Nikhil Reply
explain and give four Example hyperbolic function
Lukman Reply
_3_2_1
felecia
⅗ ⅔½
felecia
_½+⅔-¾
felecia
The denominator of a certain fraction is 9 more than the numerator. If 6 is added to both terms of the fraction, the value of the fraction becomes 2/3. Find the original fraction. 2. The sum of the least and greatest of 3 consecutive integers is 60. What are the valu
SABAL Reply
1. x + 6 2 -------------- = _ x + 9 + 6 3 x + 6 3 ----------- x -- (cross multiply) x + 15 2 3(x + 6) = 2(x + 15) 3x + 18 = 2x + 30 (-2x from both) x + 18 = 30 (-18 from both) x = 12 Test: 12 + 6 18 2 -------------- = --- = --- 12 + 9 + 6 27 3
Pawel
2. (x) + (x + 2) = 60 2x + 2 = 60 2x = 58 x = 29 29, 30, & 31
Pawel
ok
Ifeanyi
on number 2 question How did you got 2x +2
Ifeanyi
combine like terms. x + x + 2 is same as 2x + 2
Pawel
x*x=2
felecia
2+2x=
felecia
Mark and Don are planning to sell each of their marble collections at a garage sale. If Don has 1 more than 3 times the number of marbles Mark has, how many does each boy have to sell if the total number of marbles is 113?
mariel Reply
Mark = x,. Don = 3x + 1 x + 3x + 1 = 113 4x = 112, x = 28 Mark = 28, Don = 85, 28 + 85 = 113
Pawel
how do I set up the problem?
Harshika Reply
what is a solution set?
Harshika
find the subring of gaussian integers?
Rofiqul
hello, I am happy to help!
Shirley Reply
please can go further on polynomials quadratic
Abdullahi
hi mam
Mark
I need quadratic equation link to Alpa Beta
Abdullahi Reply
find the value of 2x=32
Felix Reply
divide by 2 on each side of the equal sign to solve for x
corri
X=16
Michael
Want to review on complex number 1.What are complex number 2.How to solve complex number problems.
Beyan
yes i wantt to review
Mark
use the y -intercept and slope to sketch the graph of the equation y=6x
Only Reply
how do we prove the quadratic formular
Seidu Reply
please help me prove quadratic formula
Darius
hello, if you have a question about Algebra 2. I may be able to help. I am an Algebra 2 Teacher
Shirley Reply
thank you help me with how to prove the quadratic equation
Seidu
may God blessed u for that. Please I want u to help me in sets.
Opoku
what is math number
Tric Reply
4
Trista
x-2y+3z=-3 2x-y+z=7 -x+3y-z=6
Sidiki Reply
can you teacch how to solve that🙏
Mark
Solve for the first variable in one of the equations, then substitute the result into the other equation. Point For: (6111,4111,−411)(6111,4111,-411) Equation Form: x=6111,y=4111,z=−411x=6111,y=4111,z=-411
Brenna
(61/11,41/11,−4/11)
Brenna
x=61/11 y=41/11 z=−4/11 x=61/11 y=41/11 z=-4/11
Brenna
Need help solving this problem (2/7)^-2
Simone Reply
x+2y-z=7
Sidiki
what is the coefficient of -4×
Mehri Reply
-1
Shedrak
A soccer field is a rectangle 130 meters wide and 110 meters long. The coach asks players to run from one corner to the other corner diagonally across. What is that distance, to the nearest tenths place.
Kimberly Reply
Jeannette has $5 and $10 bills in her wallet. The number of fives is three more than six times the number of tens. Let t represent the number of tens. Write an expression for the number of fives.
August Reply
What is the expressiin for seven less than four times the number of nickels
Leonardo Reply
How do i figure this problem out.
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
why surface tension is zero at critical temperature
Shanjida
I think if critical temperature denote high temperature then a liquid stats boils that time the water stats to evaporate so some moles of h2o to up and due to high temp the bonding break they have low density so it can be a reason
s.
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get Jobilize Job Search Mobile App in your pocket Now!

Get it on Google Play




Source:  OpenStax, Educational leadership and administration: teaching and program development, volume 23, 2011. OpenStax CNX. Sep 08, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11358/1.4
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Educational leadership and administration: teaching and program development, volume 23, 2011' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask