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The Chacón-Moscone Bilingual-Bicultural Education act was also passed in 1974. This act established bilingual education programs to meet the needs of identified English learners, but, in 1987, the then Governor of California, Governor Deukmejian rejected the reauthorization and the law was allowed to expire (Mora, 2005). In 1996, four California school districts were granted waivers that allowed them to eliminate their bilingual programs in favor of English–only programs. A court later ruled that the waivers had been unnecessary because California law had already been changed when the law requiring bilingual education had been allowed to sunset. Two months later, in May of 1998, Governor Pete Wilson gave school districts the flexibility to use bilingual programs or English immersion to meet the needs of the English learners (Mora, 2005). The following month, on June 3, 1998, Proposition 227 passed. It basically required English-only programs be implemented and that bilingual programs be dismantled unless otherwise requested by parents.

While lawsuits in the 1970s and 1980s focused on guaranteeing English learners access to the content through bilingual instruction, the passage of Proposition 227 in 1998 in California created a requirement that instruction had to be delivered mostly, or entirely, in English (American Institutes for Research, 2006). Standards and curricular frameworks were already in use in California, so the required content had already been identified, but concern over access to the content under this new law remained. The concern initially focused on whether students were being given the opportunity to master the content if they were not allowed to receive instruction in the primary language. A follow-up study commissioned by the California Department of Education showed that the language of instruction might not be the major issue of concern for student achievement (AIR, 2006; Parrish, Linquanti,&Merickel, 2002). The greater concern, it seemed, might be school-related factors including appropriate language development and rigor of instruction. Passage of 227 was followed by the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act in 2002 as the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001.

The NCLB legislation produced even greater accountability measures and tied that accountability to funding. The issue for schools and districts now focused on accountability for student learning and whether schools provided adequate resources for students to have the opportunity to master the content of the standards rather than simply to be exposed to the content of the standards (Northwest Regional, 2008). In California schools serving populations living in poverty, both access and opportunity were again highlighted in a key court decision that changed state law. Known as the Williams’ Act, the law required school districts receiving Title I funds to prove that every child attending a high-poverty school has a current state-adopted text for each content area, that the school is in a good state of repair, and that the school is staffed with qualified teachers (California Department of Education, 2009b; Settlement, 2004). The Williams’ Settlement along with Proposition 227 and the accountability of NCLB led the way to an era of accountability for materials, instruction and results for all populations, including English learners.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Educational leadership and administration: teaching and program development, volume 23, 2011. OpenStax CNX. Sep 08, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11358/1.4
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