# 0.7 Bits to symbols to signals  (Page 7/8)

 Page 7 / 8

If all has gone well, the quantized output mprime should be identical to the original message string.The function pam2letters.m rebuilds the message from the received signal. The final line of the programcalculates how many symbol errors have occurred (how many of the $±1,±3$ differ between the message m and the reconstructed message mprime ).

% first run pulseshape.m to create x y=xcorr(x,ps);                     % correlate pulse with received signalz=y(N*M:M:N*M)/(pow(ps)*M);       % downsample to symbol rate and normalize mprime=quantalph(z,[-3,-1,1,3])';  % quantize to +/-1 and +/-3 alphabet pam2letters(mprime)               % reconstruct messagesum(abs(sign(mprime-m)))          % calculate number of errors

In essence, pulseshape.m is a transmitter, and recfilt.m is the corresponding receiver. Many of the details of this simulation can be changedand the message will still arrive intact. The following exercises encourage exploration of some of the options.

Other pulse shapes may be used. Try

1. a sinusoidal shaped pulse ps=sin(0.1*pi*(0:M-1));
2. a sinusoidal shaped pulse ps=cos(0.1*pi*(0:M-1));
3. a rectangular pulse shape ps=ones(1,M);

What happens if the pulse shape used at the transmitter differs from the pulse shape used at the receiver? Try using theoriginal pulse shape from pulseshape.m at the transmitter, but using

1. ps=sin(0.1*pi*(0:M-1)); at the receiver. What percentage errors occur?
2. ps=cos(0.1*pi*(0:M-1)); at the receiver. What percentage errors occur?

The received signal may not always arrive at the receiver unchanged. Simulate a noisy channelby including the command before the xcorr command in recfilt.m . What percentage errors occur? What happens as you increase or decrease the amount ofnoise (by changing the 1.0 to a larger or smaller number)?

## Frame synchronization: from symbols to bits

In many communication systems, the data in the transmitted signal is separated into chunks called frames.In order to correctly decode the text at the receiver, it is necessary to locate the boundary (the start) of each chunk.This was done by fiat in the receiver of recfilt.m by correctly indexing into the received signal y . Since this starting point will not generally be known beforehand,it must somehow be located. This is an ideal job for correlation and a marker sequence.

The marker is a set of predefined symbols embedded at some specified location within eachframe. The receiver can locate the marker by cross-correlating it with the incoming signal stream.What makes a good marker sequence? This section shows that not all markers are created equally.

Consider the binary data sequence

$...+1,-1,+1,+1,-1,-1,-1,+1,\mathcal{M},+1,-1,+1,...,$

where the marker $\mathcal{M}$ is used to indicate a frame transition. A seven-symbol marker is to be used.Consider two candidates:

• marker A: $1,\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}1,\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}1,\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}1,\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}1,\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}1,\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}1$
• marker B: $1,\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}1,\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}1,\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}-1,\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}-1,\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}1,\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}-1$

The correlation of the signal with each of the markers can be performed as indicated in [link] .

For marker A, correlation corresponds to a simple sum of the last seven values.Starting at the location of the seventh value available to us in the data sequence (two data points before the marker), marker A producesthe sequence

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!