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The figure shows a crate on a flat surface, and a magnified view of a bottom corner of the crate and the supporting surface. The magnified view shows that there is roughness in the two surfaces in contact with each other. A black arrow points toward the right, away from the crate, and it is labeled as the direction of motion or attempted motion. A red arrow pointing toward the left is located near the bottom left corner of the crate, at the interface between that corner and the supporting surface. The red arrow is labeled as f, representing friction between the two surfaces in contact with each other.
Frictional forces, such as f size 12{f} {} , always oppose motion or attempted motion between objects in contact. Friction arises in part because of the roughness of the surfaces in contact, as seen in the expanded view. In order for the object to move, it must rise to where the peaks can skip along the bottom surface. Thus a force is required just to set the object in motion. Some of the peaks will be broken off, also requiring a force to maintain motion. Much of the friction is actually due to attractive forces between molecules making up the two objects, so that even perfectly smooth surfaces are not friction-free. Such adhesive forces also depend on the substances the surfaces are made of, explaining, for example, why rubber-soled shoes slip less than those with leather soles.

The magnitude of the frictional force has two forms: one for static situations (static friction), the other for when there is motion (kinetic friction).

When there is no motion between the objects, the magnitude of static friction f s size 12{f rSub { size 8{s} } } {} is

f s μ s N , size 12{f rSub { size 8{s} }<= μ rSub { size 8{s} } N} {}

where μ s size 12{μ rSub { size 8{s} } } {} is the coefficient of static friction and N is the magnitude of the normal force (the force perpendicular to the surface).

Magnitude of static friction

Magnitude of static friction f s size 12{f rSub { size 8{s} } } {} is

f s μ s N , size 12{f rSub { size 8{s} }<= μ rSub { size 8{s} } N} {}

where μ s size 12{μ rSub { size 8{s} } } {} is the coefficient of static friction and N is the magnitude of the normal force.

The symbol size 12{<= {}} {} means less than or equal to , implying that static friction can have a minimum and a maximum value of μ s N size 12{μ rSub { size 8{s} } N} {} . Static friction is a responsive force that increases to be equal and opposite to whatever force is exerted, up to its maximum limit. Once the applied force exceeds f s ( max ) size 12{f rSub { size 8{s \( "max" \) } } } {} , the object will move. Thus

f s ( max ) = μ s N . size 12{f rSub { size 8{s \( "max" \) } } =μ rSub { size 8{s} } N} {}

Once an object is moving, the magnitude of kinetic friction f k size 12{f rSub { size 8{k} } } {} is given by

f k = μ k N , size 12{f rSub { size 8{k} } =μ rSub { size 8{k} } N} {}

where μ k size 12{μ rSub { size 8{K} } } {} is the coefficient of kinetic friction. A system in which f k = μ k N size 12{f rSub { size 8{k} } =μ rSub { size 8{k} } N} {} is described as a system in which friction behaves simply .

Magnitude of kinetic friction

The magnitude of kinetic friction f k size 12{f rSub { size 8{K} } } {} is given by

f k = μ k N , size 12{f rSub { size 8{k} } =μ rSub { size 8{k} } N} {}

where μ k size 12{μ rSub { size 8{K} } } {} is the coefficient of kinetic friction.

As seen in [link] , the coefficients of kinetic friction are less than their static counterparts. That values of μ size 12{μ} {} in [link] are stated to only one or, at most, two digits is an indication of the approximate description of friction given by the above two equations.

Coefficients of static and kinetic friction
System Static friction μ s size 12{μ rSub { size 8{s} } } {} Kinetic friction μ k size 12{μ rSub { size 8{K} } } {}
Rubber on dry concrete 1.0 0.7
Rubber on wet concrete 0.7 0.5
Wood on wood 0.5 0.3
Waxed wood on wet snow 0.14 0.1
Metal on wood 0.5 0.3
Steel on steel (dry) 0.6 0.3
Steel on steel (oiled) 0.05 0.03
Teflon on steel 0.04 0.04
Bone lubricated by synovial fluid 0.016 0.015
Shoes on wood 0.9 0.7
Shoes on ice 0.1 0.05
Ice on ice 0.1 0.03
Steel on ice 0.4 0.02

The equations given earlier include the dependence of friction on materials and the normal force. The direction of friction is always opposite that of motion, parallel to the surface between objects, and perpendicular to the normal force. For example, if the crate you try to push (with a force parallel to the floor) has a mass of 100 kg, then the normal force would be equal to its weight, W = mg = ( 100 kg ) ( 9 . 80 m/s 2 ) = 980 N size 12{W="mg"= \( "100""kg" \) \( 9 "." "80"`"m/s" rSup { size 8{2} } \) ="980"N} {} , perpendicular to the floor. If the coefficient of static friction is 0.45, you would have to exert a force parallel to the floor greater than f s ( max ) = μ s N = 0.45 ( 980 N ) = 440 N size 12{f rSub { size 8{S \( "max" \) } } =μ rSub { size 8{S} } N=0 "." "45" times "980"N="440"N} {} to move the crate. Once there is motion, friction is less and the coefficient of kinetic friction might be 0.30, so that a force of only 290 N ( f k = μ k N = 0 . 30 980 N = 290 N size 12{f rSub { size 8{k} } =μ rSub { size 8{k} } N= left (0 "." "30" right ) left ("980"" N" right )="290"" N"} {} ) would keep it moving at a constant speed. If the floor is lubricated, both coefficients are considerably less than they would be without lubrication. Coefficient of friction is a unit less quantity with a magnitude usually between 0 and 1.0. The coefficient of the friction depends on the two surfaces that are in contact.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Newton's laws. OpenStax CNX. Oct 25, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11898/1.1
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