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Although the number of low income urban schools is high there exist models of success. This study highlights three historically failing schools in an urban program improvement district that each followed the same math model and consistently moved large numbers of students to proficient. The components of the math model include direct instruction, use of common assessments, instructional pacing, cooperative grouping and consensus building, teacher release time for analyzing assessment results, as well as the use of math coaches and principal support coaches. In this study, we explore each of these variables to determine the level of implementation and impact on teacher perceptions around student outcomes.

This manuscript has been peer-reviewed, accepted, and endorsed by the National Council of Professors of Educational Administration (NCPEA) as a significant contribution to the scholarship and practice of education administration. In addition to publication in the Connexions Content Commons, this manuscript is published in the Education Leadership Review, Volume 10, Number 2 (January – March 2010). Author is Cheryl Ward, San Diego State University


With the enactment of NCLB, schools across the nation are now more accountable for student performance than ever before. Funding and other support for failing schools has increased. Low performing schools are spending thousands of dollars annually on professional development, programs, and interventions to improve student outcomes (Reeves, 2003).

Yet for many schools, there is little or no improvement in student achievement. During the 2004–2005 school year, over 2,000 Title I public schools were identified as having failed to make adequate yearly progress for five or more years. This number represents 23% of all Title I eligible schools. What is most alarming is that to meet the NCLB criteria for adequate yearly progress in 2005, only 16% of a school’s tested population had to be proficient in reading and only 18% in math (Lips, 2006). Today, roughly 45% of the population must be proficient to meet the federal mandate, and the number of failing schools has dramatically increased.

Failing schools serve a disproportionately high number of low-income Black and Latino children. In the large school districts of New York City and Los Angeles, as many as 300,000 children attend the most persistently underperforming public schools (Lips, 2006). Furthermore, according to The Harvard Civil Rights Project, Black and Latino students comprise 96% of the students in schools identified for improvement in Illinois and 80% of the students in California (Sunderman&Kim, 2005). Of the roughly 20 million low-income children in K-12 schools, 12 million are not even learning the most elementary skills and have little hope of mastering the responsibilities of citizenship or the rigors of global competition (Carter, 2000).

In the midst of the perpetual despair, there are a small number of schools quickly moving large numbers of low income and minority children to proficient levels. The objective of this paper is to highlight three such schools and to describe how each school implementing the same math model was able to move significant numbers of students to proficient levels in less than one year. These schools continued to increase student proficiency levels in the second year of the model implementation and to exceed the goals of NCLB which require schools to increase the number of proficient students by roughly 10% annually.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Ncpea education leadership review, volume 10, number 2; august 2009. OpenStax CNX. Feb 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10710/1.2
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