# 0.6 Solution of the partial differential equations  (Page 10/13)

 Page 10 / 13
${v}_{\xi }-i{v}_{\eta }=\frac{dw}{d\varsigma }=\frac{dw}{dz}\frac{dz}{d\varsigma }=\left({v}_{x}-i{v}_{y}\right)\frac{dz}{d\varsigma }$

This shows that the magnitude of the velocity is changed, in the transformation from the $z$ -plane to the $\zeta$ -plane, by the reciprocal of the factor by which linear dimensions of small figures are changed. Thus the kinetic energy of the fluid contained within a closed curve in the $z$ -plane is equal to the kinetic energy of the corresponding flow in the region enclosed by the corresponding in the $\zeta$ -plane.

Flow around elliptic cylinder (Batchelor, 1967). The transformation of the region outside of an ellipse in the $z$ -plane into the region outside a circle in the $\zeta$ -plane is given by

$\begin{array}{c}z=\varsigma +\frac{{\lambda }^{2}}{\varsigma }\hfill \\ \varsigma =\frac{1}{2}z+\frac{1}{2}{\left({z}^{2}-4{\lambda }^{2}\right)}^{1/2}\hfill \end{array}$

where $\lambda$ is a real constant so that

$x=\xi \left(1+\frac{{\lambda }^{2}}{{\left|\varsigma \right|}^{2}}\right),\phantom{\rule{1.em}{0ex}}y=\eta \left(1-\frac{{\lambda }^{2}}{{\left|\varsigma \right|}^{2}}\right)$

This converts a circle of radius c with center at the origin in the - plane into the ellipse

$\frac{{x}^{2}}{{a}^{2}}+\frac{{y}^{2}}{{b}^{2}}=1$

in the $z$ -plane, where

$\lambda =\frac{1}{2}{\left({a}^{2}-{b}^{2}\right)}^{1/2}$

If the ellipse is mapped into a circle in the $\zeta$ -plane, it is convenient to use polar coordinates $\left(r,\theta \right)$ , especially since the boundary corresponds to a constant radius. The radius that maps to the elliptical boundary is ( ellipse.m in the complex directory)

${r}_{o}=\frac{1}{2}log\left(\frac{a+b}{a-b}\right)$

The transformation from the polar coordinates to the z - plane is defined by

$\begin{array}{c}z=2\lambda \phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}cosh\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\omega \hfill \\ \mathrm{where}\hfill \\ \omega =r+i\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\theta \hfill \end{array}$

The polar coordinates $\left(r,\theta \right)$ , transform to an orthogonal set of curves which are confocal ellipses and conjugate hyperbolae.

This transformation can be substituted into the complex potential expression for the flow of a fluid past a circular cylinder.

$w=-\frac{1}{2}\left(a+b\right)\left[\left(U-iV\right){e}^{\omega -{r}_{o}}+\left(U+iV\right){e}^{{r}_{o}-\omega }\right]$

It is convenient to write - for the angle which the direction of motion of the flow at infinity makes with the x - axis so that

$U+iV={\left({U}^{2}+{V}^{2}\right)}^{1/2}{e}^{-i\alpha }$

The complex potential now becomes

$w=-{\left({U}^{2}+{V}^{2}\right)}^{1/2}\left(a+b\right)cosh\left(\omega -{r}_{o}+i\alpha \right)$

The corresponding velocity potential and stream function are

$\begin{array}{c}\varphi =-{\left({U}^{2}+{V}^{2}\right)}^{1/2}\left(a+b\right)\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}cosh\left(r-{r}_{o}\right)cos\left(\theta +\alpha \right)\hfill \\ \psi =-{\left({U}^{2}+{V}^{2}\right)}^{1/2}\left(a+b\right)sinh\left(r-{r}_{o}\right)sin\left(\theta +\alpha \right)\hfill \end{array}$

The velocity potentials and streamlines are illustrated below for flow past an elliptical cylinder ( fellipse.m in the complex directory). Note the stagnation streamlines on either side of the body. These two stagnation points are regions of maximum pressure and result in a torque on the body. Which way will it rotate?

Pressure distribution. When an object is in a flow field, one may wish to determine the force exerted by the fluid on the object, or the 'drag' on the object. Since the flow field discussed here has assumed an inviscid fluid, it is not possible to determine the viscous drag or skin friction directly from the flow field. It is possible to determine the 'form drag' from the normal stress or pressure distribution around the object. However, one must be critical to determine if the calculated flow field is physically realistic or if some important phenomena such as boundary layer separation may occur but is not allowed in the complex potential solution.

The Bernoulli theorems give the relation between the magnitude of velocity and pressure. We have assumed irrotational, incompressible flow. If in addition we assume the body force can be neglected, then the quantity, $H$ , must be constant along a streamline.

what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
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I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
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Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
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what is a peer
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What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
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Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
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if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
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The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
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Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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