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Along with the above mentioned procedures, the ESD committee asked staff members to write positive referrals during the year for students whom they witnessed going above and beyond. The teacher wrote comments on the form and put it in their administrator’s mailboxes. The administrators called those students into their offices and gave the students the form with their added comments, a pass for free ice cream and called the students parents. It was amazing to hear the surprise from a parent when an administrator called home for something positive and to see how much something small like this actually meant to high school student. The added benefit was that the discipline referrals decreased by over 20% from the year before. For an administrator, that equates to time during the school day to focus on other leadership aspects.


The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 has been a major instrument driving the accountability movement of American schools (No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107-110, 115Stat. 1425.). Each year the standards for NCLB become more stringent. Educators feel the constant pressure to meet the annual yearly progress goals of NCLB. The scores on the standardize test become the obvious accountability measures of the school for the educators, public, and politicians. The scores for the number of students passing the state standardized tests are reported publically and how schools get judged and used as a measurement of a school’s success.

Case study 2

Some educators leading below the surface make it their mission to help these students improve academic performance. The math teachers at a rural middle school created an afternoon tutoring program on Tuesdays and Thursdays. Students were required to sign up for the tutoring prior to attending and parents were required to document how the student would be getting home. Tutoring was offered to all students, but the math teachers targeted some students that showed a need improvement of basic math skills. Student data was used from a variety of sources to create the student list. Parents of students with the greatest need were contacted by mail regarding the program and followed up with a phone call.

The math teachers worked together to create sessions that included math manipulatives, computer programs, and small group instruction. Knowing the students would be hungry after school, they asked parents to bring in snacks for those staying after school. The Parent Teacher Organization (PTO) was asked to provide gift certificates to be used in a drawing at the end of the program.

The tutoring program was very successful with over thirty students participating. The math scores were the best in years. Many students who failed the Standard of Learning math test in the past developed math skills that enabled them to pass the current math test.

While the NCLB has created its long list of challenges for school systems across the country, one of the main benefits of it is that school systems everywhere are paying attention to those students who are considered to be “below the surface”: students with disabilities, children of color, limited English speaking students. At risk students are identified before the school year starts. Those students are conscientiously placed with the teachers who best match their learning styles. Their progress is closely tracked during the year and instead of quietly falling through the cracks, they are pulled out of electives or gym once or twice a week for remediation. This made a tremendous difference with Standards of Learning scores. This is what accountability is all about.

Concluding thoughts

When school leaders settle for the obvious, they only see what is on the surface. As Creighton refers to the 10% of the iceberg that is visible above the water, administrators often narrowly focus on only what they can see. Evidence based decision making and accountability afford school administrators at all levels the opportunity to delve deeper which will allow for more successful school leadership.


Creighton, T (2005). Leading from Below the Surface: A Non-traditional Approach to School Leadership. Thousands Oaks, California: Corwin Press.

No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107-110, 115Stat. 1425

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
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Source:  OpenStax, 21st century theories of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Jul 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10727/1.1
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