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Along with the above mentioned procedures, the ESD committee asked staff members to write positive referrals during the year for students whom they witnessed going above and beyond. The teacher wrote comments on the form and put it in their administrator’s mailboxes. The administrators called those students into their offices and gave the students the form with their added comments, a pass for free ice cream and called the students parents. It was amazing to hear the surprise from a parent when an administrator called home for something positive and to see how much something small like this actually meant to high school student. The added benefit was that the discipline referrals decreased by over 20% from the year before. For an administrator, that equates to time during the school day to focus on other leadership aspects.


The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 has been a major instrument driving the accountability movement of American schools (No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107-110, 115Stat. 1425.). Each year the standards for NCLB become more stringent. Educators feel the constant pressure to meet the annual yearly progress goals of NCLB. The scores on the standardize test become the obvious accountability measures of the school for the educators, public, and politicians. The scores for the number of students passing the state standardized tests are reported publically and how schools get judged and used as a measurement of a school’s success.

Case study 2

Some educators leading below the surface make it their mission to help these students improve academic performance. The math teachers at a rural middle school created an afternoon tutoring program on Tuesdays and Thursdays. Students were required to sign up for the tutoring prior to attending and parents were required to document how the student would be getting home. Tutoring was offered to all students, but the math teachers targeted some students that showed a need improvement of basic math skills. Student data was used from a variety of sources to create the student list. Parents of students with the greatest need were contacted by mail regarding the program and followed up with a phone call.

The math teachers worked together to create sessions that included math manipulatives, computer programs, and small group instruction. Knowing the students would be hungry after school, they asked parents to bring in snacks for those staying after school. The Parent Teacher Organization (PTO) was asked to provide gift certificates to be used in a drawing at the end of the program.

The tutoring program was very successful with over thirty students participating. The math scores were the best in years. Many students who failed the Standard of Learning math test in the past developed math skills that enabled them to pass the current math test.

While the NCLB has created its long list of challenges for school systems across the country, one of the main benefits of it is that school systems everywhere are paying attention to those students who are considered to be “below the surface”: students with disabilities, children of color, limited English speaking students. At risk students are identified before the school year starts. Those students are conscientiously placed with the teachers who best match their learning styles. Their progress is closely tracked during the year and instead of quietly falling through the cracks, they are pulled out of electives or gym once or twice a week for remediation. This made a tremendous difference with Standards of Learning scores. This is what accountability is all about.

Concluding thoughts

When school leaders settle for the obvious, they only see what is on the surface. As Creighton refers to the 10% of the iceberg that is visible above the water, administrators often narrowly focus on only what they can see. Evidence based decision making and accountability afford school administrators at all levels the opportunity to delve deeper which will allow for more successful school leadership.


Creighton, T (2005). Leading from Below the Surface: A Non-traditional Approach to School Leadership. Thousands Oaks, California: Corwin Press.

No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107-110, 115Stat. 1425

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, 21st century theories of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Jul 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10727/1.1
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