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Educators often refer to achievement gaps that occur between African American students when they are compared to Caucasian students, but with the influx of refugees from Africa, there are some schools that have a majority of students that are considered a part of the Black Subgroup, that are also receiving ELL services. This phenomenon impacts this particular subgroup because the nation’s largest immigrant and/or refugee population consists of Hispanic students and they have a defined group in NCLB. Does the performance of the ELL students positively or negatively affect performance in achieving AYP for specific subgroups? Does the roll of ELL learners influence outcomes on AYP? To answer these questions, one must make evidenced-based decisions that investigate from below the surface.

Schools with high ELL populations that include African students must identify and monitor the achievement of both groups when coupled within a large African American student community. Africans should be treated with the same degree of conscientiousness as minority, special education children because of the impact that those particular students have on achieving AYP. Perhaps a school has an achievement gap, meaning Caucasians score 15-20% higher on standardized tests than their African American counterparts. The school may also have a high African population that has recently migrated to the U.S. Does the performance of the African students have a positive or negative impact on the performance of the Black subgroup as a whole?

Case study 1

At a suburban high school, the Effective School-wide Discipline (ESD) committee kept track of discipline data. The team disaggregated how many referrals students had for different locations of the school, times of day, gender, ethnicity, etc. The ESD team tracked the referrals and analyzed the data but no patterns surfaced. The ESD team decided to look below the surface and go beyond the set requirements. The ESD team looked at the referrals by individuals and realized that 44% of the referrals came from only 5% of the students. This was alarming so collectively the group investigated ways to improve this pattern.

The ESD team decided to look for positive incentives. First of all, the team targeted that list of students who had recurring discipline problems and their grade level administrators called them in individually. The administrators told the student that they wanted to see progress with his/her behaviors and let the student know that they would be invited to a pizza party during their lunch at the end of the semester if the student didn’t get any more referrals. There were only about six students who made it through the next three weeks without getting in trouble and qualified for this reward but many of them did try to do better so the school’s discipline numbers began to decrease.

Next the ESD team looked at the timing and realized that March and May were the months with the most referrals so the team strategized on how to decrease the discipline during those two months. For March, the team did prize drawings. Any student who did not get a referral would have their name entered into the drawing. For May, the ESD team did a Student Staff Triathlon and those students who did not have referrals could attend and those who got in trouble during the month had to go to a designated room and do homework.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
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Source:  OpenStax, 21st century theories of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Jul 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10727/1.1
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