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Neutralization reaction refers to acid and base reaction producing salt and water. The equivalent amounts of acid react with base to form equivalent amounts of salt and water. When the reaction is complete, acid and base are said to neutralize each other. Since water is produced, neutralization reaction is also referred as “water forming reaction”.

acid + base salt + water

Consider reaction like :

N a O H + H C l N a C l + H 2 O

We can rewrite the reaction in ionic form as :

N a + a q + O H - 1 a q + H + a q + C l - a q N a + a q + C l - a q + H 2 O

Essentially, neutralization reaction is double displacement reaction. Some definitions used in the study of neutralization reaction are :

Equivalence point : The state of acid base reaction when acid and base react in exact equivalent amounts as determined theoretically.

End point : The state of acid base reaction when acid and base react in exact equivalent amounts as determined practically (during titration). Clearly, end point volume measurement is slightly greater than that corresponding to equivalence point.

Neutral point : The state of acid-base reaction when product solution is neutral (pH=7).

The ionic salt formed from the reaction of strong acid [ H 2 S O 4, H C l , H N O 3, H 3 P O 4 ] and strong base [ N a O H , K O H , M g O H 2, C a O H 2 ] are pH neutral. Also, water is pH neutral. As such, strong acid and strong base reaction yields neutral products or product solution. In this case, equivalence and neutral points are same.

However, salts formed with other combinations like “strong acid - weak base” and “weak acid - strong base” are not neutral. They produce salts, which are either acidic or basic in nature. As such, pH of the product solution is not 7. Here, equivalence point is not same as neutral point.

H 2 S O 4 strong acid + 2 N H 4 O H weak base N H 4 2 S O 4 acidic salt + 2 H 2 O

C H 3 C O O H weak acid + N a O H strong base C H 3 C O O N a basic salt + H 2 O

We refer acid-base reaction as neutralization reaction even though products are not neutral (pH=7). As a matter of fact, product solution is acidic (pH<3) for strong acid –weak base reaction. We need to add more of base solution beyond equivalence volume to make the product solution neutral. Similarly, product solution is basic (pH>7) for weak acid-strong base reaction. Here, we need to add more acid beyond equivalence volume to make the product solution neutral.


The acid-base reaction involves completion of reaction in equivalent proportion of solutes in the solutions. The experimental process to study proportion of reacting volumes and calculation of mass/ concentration of solution is known as “titration”. Completion of reaction is known by chemical indicator or by other means depending on the type of reaction involved. We shall study details of titration process separately.

Analyzing neutralization reaction

We treat neutralization reaction on similar footing as other reactions. Generally, it involves reaction between two solutions of certain concentrations. Clearly, it is helpful to describe analysis in terms of molarity or normality. For a generic consideration :

m A 1 + n A 2 p A 3 + q A 4

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Stoichiometry. OpenStax CNX. Jul 05, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10540/1.7
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