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Observation 3: distortions from expected geometries

It is interesting to note that some molecular geometries( C H 4 , C O 2 , H C C H ) are exactly predicted by the Electron Domain model, whereas inother molecules, the model predictions are only approximately correct. For examples, the observed angles in ammonia and watereach differ slightly from the tetrahedral angle. Here again, there are four pairs of valence shell electrons about the central atoms.As such, it is reasonable to conclude that the bond angles are determined by the mutual repulsion of these electron pairs, and arethus expected to be 109.5°, which is close but not exact.

One clue as to a possible reason for the discrepancy is that the bond angles in ammonia and water are both less than 109.5°. Another is that both ammonia and water molecules have lone pair electrons, whereas thereare no lone pairs in a methane molecule, for which the Electron Domain prediction is exact. Moreover, the bond angle in water, withtwo lone pairs, is less than the bond angles in ammonia, with a single lone pair. We can straightforwardly conclude from theseobservations that the lone pairs of electrons must produce a greater repulsive effect than do the bonded pairs. Thus, inammonia, the three bonded pairs of electrons are forced together slightly compared to those in methane, due to the greater repulsiveeffect of the lone pair. Likewise, in water, the two bonded pairs of electrons are even further forced together by the two lone pairsof electrons.

This model accounts for the comparative bond angles observed experimentally in these molecules. The valenceshell electron pairs repel one another, establishing the geometry in which the energy of their interaction is minimized. Lone pairelectrons apparently generate a greater repulsion, thus slightly reducing the angles between the bonded pairs of electrons. Althoughthis model accounts for the observed geometries, why should lone pair electrons generate a greater repulsive effect? We must guessat a qualitative answer to this question, since we have no description at this point for where the valence shell electronpairs actually are or what it means to share an electron pair. We can assume, however, that a pair of electrons shared by two atomsmust be located somewhere between the two nuclei, otherwise our concept of "sharing" is quite meaningless. Therefore, the powerfultendency of the two electrons in the pair to repel one another must be significantly offset by the localization of these electronsbetween the two nuclei which share them. By contrast, a lone pair of electrons need not be so localized, since there is no secondnucleus to draw them into the same vicinity. Thus more free to move about the central atom, these lone pair electrons must have a moresignificant repulsive effect on the other pairs ofelectrons.

These ideas can be extended by more closely examining the geometry of ethene, C 2 H 4 . Recall that each H-C-H bond angle is 116.6° and each H-C-C bond angle is 121.7°, whereas the Electron Domain theoryprediction is for bond angles exactly equal to 120°. We can understand why the H-C-H bond angle is slightly less than120° by assuming that the two pairs of electrons in the C=C double bond produce a greater repulsive effect than do either ofthe single pairs of electrons in the C-H single bonds. The result of this greater repulsion is a slight "pinching" of the H-C-H bondangle to less than 120°.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry. OpenStax CNX. Dec 06, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10264/1.5
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