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Multitext vs. “urtext”

As of this writing, the most recent modern edition of Homeric poetry is the Iliad of Martin West (1998b / 2000). West based his edition on the theory of an original written Iliad and Odyssey composed in writing by an original poet. As West says about his edition (1998a:95), “We may assume that there existed a complete and coherent Urtext of each epic, the result of the first writing down.” But the fact is, and West candidly admits it, the existing manuscript traditions of the Homeric Iliad and Odyssey cannot be traced back directly to such a hypothetical Urtext . The variants that we find in these traditions simply cannot be reconciled with each other in terms of an Urtext , and editors like West who assume the pre-existence of such an Urtext are forced to choose, on a case-by-case basis, which is the right variant and which are the wrong variants in the existing manuscript traditions.

As I have argued, however, “we cannot simplistically apply the criteria of right or wrong, better or worse, original or altered, in the editorial process of sorting out the Homeric variants” (Nagy 1996:153). If Homeric poetry, as a system, derives from traditional oral poetry, then we can expect such a system to be capable of generating multiform versions, not one uniform version, and no single version can be privileged as superior in and of itself whenever we apply the empirical methods of comparative philology and the study of oral tradition (Nagy 1996:117-118).

In my review of West’s Iliad (Nagy 2000, republished in Nagy 2004:40-74), I argued against his idea of a Homeric Urtext , which would require a “unitext” edition, and I argued for the alternative idea of a multitext Homer, which would require a multitext edition designed to account for the historical reality of multiformity as we find it attested in Homeric textual traditions (Nagy 2000 = 2004:70). Work on such a multitext edition of Homeric poetry, as I noted at the outset of my presentation here, is in progress (Dué and Ebbott 2009+).

In the previous paragraph, I emphasized the historical reality of multiformity in the Homeric textual traditions. This emphasis is needed in order to counteract the false impression that each variant is a “right” version, as it were, in the editing of a multitext that reflects the multiformity of the textual tradition. A multitext edition, which requires a combination of synchronic, diachronic, and historical perspectives, shows something quite different: that each variant is the “right” version only in its own historical setting . In other words, different variants were perceived as the “right” version at different points in the history of the Homeric tradition . Here is my overall formulation, as presented originally in a review (Nagy 2003) of a book by West (2001b) and as recast in a book entitled Homer’s Text and Language (Nagy 2004:77-78):

West misreads the concept of multitext when he claims that a multitext edition of Homer promotes an attitude of indifference toward the critical evaluation of variant readings in the history of the Homeric textual tradition. Contrary to West’s claim, a multitext edition of Homer does indeed allow for the privileging of one variant over others—but only in relative terms, since the editor may find that different variants became dominant in different phases of the Homeric tradition. In terms of a multitext edition, the editor of Homer needs to adopt a diachronic perspective—as an alternative to a pseudo-synchronic perspective. The term “pseudo-synchronic” will be explained further below.
From a diachronic and even historical point of view, it is indeed possible to think of a single given variant as the definitive variant at a single given time and a single given place. But the privileging of any given variant by any given audience is itself a matter of variation, and a diachronic perspective makes it clear that different variants were perceived as the “right” version at different points in the history of the Homeric tradition.
It is not that a diachronic perspective avoids “passing any value judgments,” as West claims [2001b:159n2; also his p. 3]. The point is, rather, that the modern value judgments of the editor need to be responsive to changes in the ancient value judgments about Homeric poetry throughout the historical continuum of the Homeric tradition. West applies the term “value judgments” only to the critical stances of modern editors and their readers. But what about the “value judgments” of the ancient world? In this case, a more suitable term is “reception.” The problem is, West does not take into account the history of Homeric reception. If indeed Homeric poetry—as recorded by the Homeric textual tradition—reflects a system derived from oral poetry, then the value judgments of an editor need to be responsive to the multiple value judgments represented by that system as it evolves through time. An empirical analysis of the textual evidence reveals an underlying system capable of generating a multiplicity of versions, and it is methodologically unsound for an editor to assume that only one of these extant versions was basic while the others were derivative. Such an assumption exemplifies what I call a “pseudo-synchronic” point of view. I define such a point of view as one that treats irregularities within a given traditional system as if they could never have been regularities in other phases of that same system.

Questions & Answers

any tip for igcse economics exam?pls
Stacey Reply
well
The
What is a market
Divine Reply
what are the variables that affect demand
Divine
what are the variables that affect demand
Divine
what are the variables that affect demand
Divine
what are the variables that affect demand
Divine
what are the variables that affect demand
Divine
price of the related goods 2 price of the given commodity 3 income of the consumer 4 taste and preference 5 expectation in the future price
John
pls the taste and preference
Nas
explain briefly
Nas
a consumer taste and preference commodity changes for a time the man becomes
John
sorry sorry
John
is when the price of a commodity becomes high and can't afford example Samsung instead of iPhone
John
consumers who have high intense for goods will purchase the goods even if the price of that commodity increases because he or she preferred that commodity.people will be prefer iphone as its price increase
Yussif
as usual bad taste of preference is when a consumer regrets from one commodity to another in terms of the price
John
thanks alot
Nas
you're welcome
John
#Preference; #Income #Test
Dereje
#price Of Commodity #Income #Taste #Preference
Dereje
#Market is The Place Where Buyers And Sellers Are Exchanging Their Goods And service. #
Dereje
difference between macro and micro economics
Lawrence
Microeconomic Study about individual consumers market But Macroeconomis Study General economic Process Such As #Aggregate Demand #Aggregate Supples #GDp= #GNp
Dereje
nice so can u run down a brife discussion on GDP
Lawrence
good
Chinex
pls can someone differentiate between the perfectly elastic, perfectly inelastic and unitary
yhar Reply
and then again pls what are the types of elasticity, the methods of calculating it thank u
yhar
Perfectly inelastic is when the coefficient is equal to zero Unitary is when the coefficient is equal to one But am not sure if we have perfectly inelastic
John
I'm kind off confuse abt the PED, IED and co are they the types of elasticity we've
yhar
Yh the types are price elasticity cross and income elasticity of demand
John
do we've specific formulaes to calculate for each of them
yhar
yes. PED. changes in quantity demanded divided by changes in price
Vealmurugan
so pls what's the general name given to unitary, elastic n inelastic ? are the names given to the final result after doing the calculations?
yhar
P2-P1÷P1×100or Q2-Q1×Q1×100 PED
John
***tutor2u.net/economics/reference/price-elasticity-of-demand
Vealmurugan
They are elasticity coefficient
John
@John I don't get u well pls
yhar
whichone
John
P2-P1÷P1×100or Q2-Q1×Q1×100 PED @john pls tis is what m talking abt
yhar
Yh is the formula for PED
John
Pls are you having a for PED
John
thank u very
yhar
dy
Jobang
what is economics
Tayyeb
economics is a science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative use
John
is a science which study human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses
Divine
yes this is because economic provide a body of knowledge on human economic principles under theories and these theories can be verified with real world data using science method in other words it was scientific method in arriving at solution identification of problem or basic data collection among
John
unitary ElasticWhen Elasticty =1 Perfectily Elastic When 0<1 inelastic when 0>
Dereje
Pls is anyone having the NovDec questions?
John Reply
No
Emmanuel
what is micro economics
Rakesh Reply
What is PPF
Endam
Production Possibility Frontier
John
It refers to a curve or graph which shows the possible contributions of maximum alternative of commodity that can be produced in an economy
John
thanks
Endam
Thanks John talkx of defination pls
Endam
I don't get you
John
guys Any One With Novdec Questions 2019?
Diana Reply
what did Adam Smith introduce?
Sunday Reply
what is supply
Awunyo Reply
supply relationship shows that the higher the price, the higher the quantity supplied. 
SDADY
what are the dissadvantages of large scale production
Atanga Reply
depreciate of quality taste
Kosiso
Some of the Disadvantages are:- 1. Production not according to individual Tastes 2. Monopoly 3. Not Flexible 4. Over-Production 5. Heavy loss and Dislocation 6. Decline of Cottage and Small Scale Industries 7. Adverse Effect on Labourers 8. Unequal Distribution of Wealth
Asrar
And what can be the advantages too
Enow
1.adequate satisfaction 2.reduce importation
Yussif
Reduce importation how pls
Enow
the country will have enough products.this will reduce the level of government expenditure on imported goods especially
Yussif
Some of Advantage 1. Division of Labour 2. More Production 3. Use of machines 4. Low Cost of Production 5. Standard Goods 6. Advertisements and Salesmanship
Asrar
Some of its disadvantages are : (i) Less Supervision (ii) Individual tastes ignored (iii) Absence of Personal Element (iv) Possibility of depression (v) Dependence on Foreign Markets (vi) International complications and war (vii) Cut-throat Competition (viii) Less Adaptability
Kalu
what are the types of trade cycle
Kenny Reply
depression
DG
explain the following 1.supply 2.mobility of labour 3.why the demand slope downward from left to right
Theresa Reply
Mobility of labor is a the movement of labor (people) geographically or occupationally
Olotu
What is Supply
Kamodu Reply
Supply is quantity of a comodity which is presented in the market for sell on fixed price
Mahwish
Supply is quality of a goods the seller are willing to deliver at the particular price
Chinex
what is economy
Jacob Reply
Economy is defined as the efficient use of resources
Thomas
explain merits and demerit of economic
Portia
What is Unemployment?
Prince Reply
unemployment is a situation where an individual is easily and ready to render services but resources are not available.
Phelix
Unemployment refers to individual who are employable and seeking a job but are unable to find a job or doesn't have a job. To find the unemployment rate in a given economy, you must divide the unemployed people by the total number of employed people in the work force. Indicator of economy's status.
elkanah
unemployment is The level of joblessness in an economy, often measured as a percentage of the workforce. Unemployment was reported at 5.2% in May, up from 4.9% in April
ANNOR
Pls wat are the factors that influence unemployment
Olotu
just trying ⚠ factors that affect unemployment - the rate of imported inflation - interest rates - levels of investment
Wallace
unemployment is a situation where country labour Force who are active capable and are really searching for or willing to work at assistant wage rates but cannot find job
John
working age ppl who have no job for a period of time. there are different types of unemployment like structural, fictional, seasonal n etc. there is a formula to calculate it. n have factors causes this.
Vealmurugan
factors that influence on employment 1 high population growth growth as against low Industries growth rates 2 lack of skills or mass irritracy 3 government policies such as minimum wage trade liberalization and high taxation 4 initial capital requirements
John
I'm an economics student, what I do now will make my life a success,
mostafiz
Thank you
Tantoh
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Leta
what is difference between economic growth and economic development?( I want unique &brief answer)?
Leta
unemployment is when legitimate labour Force are not engaged in the economy.
Lawrence
economic growth is the already settled growth of the economy and National income can be used in verification of that while economic development is the process of improvement in an economy
Lawrence
what is rational behavior
Aaron Reply
James what is nationalisation
Awunyo
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Source:  OpenStax, Online humanities scholarship: the shape of things to come. OpenStax CNX. May 08, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11199/1.1
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