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Note that this structure leaves three of the valence electrons “unpaired” and thus ready to join in a shared electron pair. The remaining two valence electrons are “paired,” and this notation implies that they therefore are not generally available for sharing in a covalent bond. This notation is consistent with the available data, i.e. five valence electrons and a valence of 3. Pairing the two non-bonding electrons seems reasonable in analogy to the fact that electrons are paired in forming covalent bonds.

We can draw similar structures for oxygen and fluorine. The other halogens will have structures like F, since they have the same valence and the same number of valence electrons.

With this notation in hand, we can now analyze structures for molecules including nitrogen, oxygen, and the halogens. The hydrides are the easiest:

Note that the octet rule is clearly obeyed for oxygen, nitrogen, and the halogens.

At this point, it becomes very helpful to adopt one new convention: a pair of bonded electrons will now be more easily represented in our Lewis structures by a straight line, rather than two dots. Double bonds and triple bonds are respectively represented by double and triple straight lines between atoms. We will continue to show non-bonded electron pairs explicitly with two dots.

For example, ethanol has the molecular formula C 2 H 6 O. The two carbon atoms are bonded together and the oxygen atom is attached to one of the two carbons; the hydrogen atoms are arranged to complete the valences of the carbon atoms and the oxygen atom:

In this structure, each line connecting two atoms represents a shared pair of electrons, or a covalent bond. The non-bonding pairs on oxygen are often called “lone pairs.” It is important for us to include them in our structure for three reasons. First, including the lone pairs helps us check that we have drawn a structure with the correct number of valence electrons. Let’s check this for this drawing. Each carbon atom contributes four valence electrons, the oxygen atom contributes six, and each hydrogen atom contributes 1. There are thus a total of 2(4)+6+6(1)=20 valence electrons. Counting electrons in the drawing, there are eight covalent bonds, each of which represents two valence electrons, and two lone pairs, for a total of 20 valence electrons.

Second, drawing the lone pairs helps us see that the octet rule is obeyed for the O atom. Third and perhaps most importantly, we will later learn that lone pairs of electrons are important in determining the physical and chemical properties of molecules.

Review and discussion questions

  1. Compounds with formulae of the form C n H 2n+2 are often referred to as "saturated" hydrocarbons.Using Lewis structures, explain how and in what sense these molecules are “saturated.”
  2. Molecules with formulae of the form C n H 2n+1 (e.g. CH 3 , C 2 H 5 ) are called "radicals" and are extremely reactive. UsingLewis structures, explain the reactivity of these molecules.
  3. State and explain the experimental evidence and reasoning which shows that multiple bonds are stronger and shorter than single bonds.
  4. Compare N 2 to H 4 N 2 . Predict which bond is stronger and explain why.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry 2013. OpenStax CNX. Oct 07, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11579/1.1
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