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There is a very interesting consistency in these molecular formulae: in each case, the number of hydrogen atoms is two more than twice the number of carbon atoms, so that each compound has a molecular formula like C n H 2n+2 . (Try it out!) This suggests that there are strong similarities in the valences of the atoms involved which should be understandable in terms of our valence shell electron pair sharing model.

Since each H atom can only bond to a single other atom, the carbon atoms in each molecules must be directly bonded together. In the easiest example of ethane, the two carbon atoms are bonded together, and each carbon atom is in turn bonded to three hydrogen atoms. This would fit our model of valence, since each carbon atom is bonded to four other atoms (three hydrogens and the other carbon). By sharing an electron pair with each of those four atoms, each carbon atom fills its valence shell with eight electrons. This example was not difficult.

In most other cases, it is not so trivial to determine which atoms are bonded to which. This is because there may be multiple possibilities which satisfy all the atomic valences. As the number of atoms and electrons increases, it may also be difficult to determine whether each atom has an octet of electrons in its valence shell. We need a system of counting the valence electrons which makes it easy for us to see these features more clearly. To start, we create a notation for each atom which displays the number of valence electrons in the unbonded atom explicitly. In this notation, carbon and hydrogen look like

where the dots represent the single valence electron in hydrogen and the four valence electrons in carbon. Note that the C atom valence electrons are all unpaired. This is because we know that the valence of a C atom is four, so there are four valence electrons available to be shared with other atoms.

Using this notation, it is now fairly easy to represent the shared electron pairs and the carbon atom valence shell octets in methane and ethane. For each pair of bonded atoms, we share an electron pair from the valence shell electrons. This gives for methane and ethane:

Recall that each shared pair of electrons represents a chemical bond. These drawing are examples of what are called “Lewis structures,” after G.N. Lewis who first invented this notation. These structures reveal, at a glance, which atoms are bonded to which, so we call this the “structural formula” of the molecule. There are two things to check about the electrons in the structural formula. First, we cannot have created or lost any valence electrons. For example, in ethane we started with four valence electrons from each carbon and one valence electron from each hydrogen, for a total of 14 electrons. The structural formula of ethane drawn above has 14 valence electrons, so that is correct. Second, if we have satisfied the valence of each atom, each carbon should have an octet of electrons and each hydrogen should have two electrons. We can also easily count the number of valence shell electrons around each atom in the bonded molecule and verify that this is also correct.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry 2013. OpenStax CNX. Oct 07, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11579/1.1
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