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This concept also applies to elements just below carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine. Silicon will form SiH 4 , so an Si atom has a valence of 4. Phosphorous forms PH 3 , so P has a valence of 3, and Sulfur forms H 2 S, so S has a valence of 2. Each halogen atom (Cl, Br, I) prefers to form molecules by combining with a single hydrogen atom (e.g. HCl, HBr, HI), so each halogen has a valence of 1.

We can make further progress using the valence of the halogens. Lithium, sodium, potassium, and rubidium each bind with a single Cl atom to form LiCl, NaCl, KCl, and RbCl. Therefore, they also have a valence of 1. Because we also find that, for example, the combination of two potassium atoms with a single oxygen atom forms a stable molecule, our assignments are all still consistent, since oxygen’s valence of 2 can be satisfied by the two K atoms, each with a valence of 1. We can proceed in this manner to assign a valence to each element by simply determining the number of atoms to which this element’s atoms prefer to bind.

If we arrange the valences according to Periodic Table as in [link] , we discover that there is a pattern. Just as we would expect from the Periodic Law, elements in the same group all share a common valence.

Most common valence of each element in periods 2 and 3
Li Be B C N O F Ne
1 2 3 4 3 2 1 0
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
1 2 3 4 3 2 1 0

The inert gases with a valence of 0 sit to one side of the table. Each inert gas is immediately preceded in the table by one of the halogens: fluorine precedes neon, chlorine precedes argon. And each halogen has a valence of one. This “one step away, valence of one” pattern can be extended. The elements just prior to the halogens (oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium) are each two steps away from the inert gases in the table, and each of these elements has a valence of two (e.g. H 2 O, H 2 S). The elements just preceding these (nitrogen, phosphorus, antimony, arsenic) have valences of three (e.g. NH 3 , PH 3 ), and the elements before that (carbon and silicon most notably) have valences of four (CH 4 , SiH 4 ). The two groups of elements immediately after the inert gases, the alkali metals and the alkaline earths, have valences of one and two, respectively. Hence, for many elements in the periodic table, the valence of its atoms can be predicted from the number of steps the element is away from the nearest inert gas in the table. This systemization is quite remarkable and is very useful for remembering what molecules may be easily formed by a particular element.

Next we discover that there is an additional very interesting aspect to the pattern of the valences: for elements in Groups 4 through 8 (e.g. carbon through neon), the valence of each atom plus the number of electrons in the valence shell in that atom always equals eight . For instance, carbon has a valence of 4 and has 4 valence electrons; nitrogen has a valence of 3 and has 5 valence electrons; oxygen has a valence of 2 and has 6 valence electrons. We have made one of the most important observations in Chemistry, the “Octet Rule”:

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry 2013. OpenStax CNX. Oct 07, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11579/1.1
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