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This concept also applies to elements just below carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine. Silicon will form SiH 4 , so an Si atom has a valence of 4. Phosphorous forms PH 3 , so P has a valence of 3, and Sulfur forms H 2 S, so S has a valence of 2. Each halogen atom (Cl, Br, I) prefers to form molecules by combining with a single hydrogen atom (e.g. HCl, HBr, HI), so each halogen has a valence of 1.

We can make further progress using the valence of the halogens. Lithium, sodium, potassium, and rubidium each bind with a single Cl atom to form LiCl, NaCl, KCl, and RbCl. Therefore, they also have a valence of 1. Because we also find that, for example, the combination of two potassium atoms with a single oxygen atom forms a stable molecule, our assignments are all still consistent, since oxygen’s valence of 2 can be satisfied by the two K atoms, each with a valence of 1. We can proceed in this manner to assign a valence to each element by simply determining the number of atoms to which this element’s atoms prefer to bind.

If we arrange the valences according to Periodic Table as in [link] , we discover that there is a pattern. Just as we would expect from the Periodic Law, elements in the same group all share a common valence.

Most common valence of each element in periods 2 and 3
Li Be B C N O F Ne
1 2 3 4 3 2 1 0
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
1 2 3 4 3 2 1 0

The inert gases with a valence of 0 sit to one side of the table. Each inert gas is immediately preceded in the table by one of the halogens: fluorine precedes neon, chlorine precedes argon. And each halogen has a valence of one. This “one step away, valence of one” pattern can be extended. The elements just prior to the halogens (oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium) are each two steps away from the inert gases in the table, and each of these elements has a valence of two (e.g. H 2 O, H 2 S). The elements just preceding these (nitrogen, phosphorus, antimony, arsenic) have valences of three (e.g. NH 3 , PH 3 ), and the elements before that (carbon and silicon most notably) have valences of four (CH 4 , SiH 4 ). The two groups of elements immediately after the inert gases, the alkali metals and the alkaline earths, have valences of one and two, respectively. Hence, for many elements in the periodic table, the valence of its atoms can be predicted from the number of steps the element is away from the nearest inert gas in the table. This systemization is quite remarkable and is very useful for remembering what molecules may be easily formed by a particular element.

Next we discover that there is an additional very interesting aspect to the pattern of the valences: for elements in Groups 4 through 8 (e.g. carbon through neon), the valence of each atom plus the number of electrons in the valence shell in that atom always equals eight . For instance, carbon has a valence of 4 and has 4 valence electrons; nitrogen has a valence of 3 and has 5 valence electrons; oxygen has a valence of 2 and has 6 valence electrons. We have made one of the most important observations in Chemistry, the “Octet Rule”:

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry 2013. OpenStax CNX. Oct 07, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11579/1.1
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